A & P 3 Study Guide 2

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intracellular

The liquid contained within the cells is called _____.

third center

The hypothalamus has a nucleus called the _____ that stimulates water intake and inhibits salivation.

edema

A local accumulation of interstitial fluid is called _____.

hyponatremia

A deficiency of Na+ in the blood is called _____.

potassium ions

Hyperkalemia is an abnormally high concentration of _____ in the blood.

buffer

A chemical that converts a strong acid or base to a weak one and thus resists pH changes is called a/an _____.

acidosis

A blood pH below 7.35 is called _____.

uncompensated

An acid-base imbalance that the body cannot correct is said to be _____.

true

Chemical buffers act more quickly than physiological buffers.

false

The adult body is is about 75% water by weight.

true

About two-thirds of the total body weight is intracellular.

true

The amount of water lost by way of the respiratory system is greater in cold weather than in hot weather.

true

Chronic diarrhea tends to cause both hypokalemia and hypovolemia.

false

Long-term satiation of thirst is mainly due to distension of the stomach by the swallowed water.

true

Abnormal loss of protein in the urine can lead to edema.

g. antidiuretic hormone

Hormone that stimulates deployment

c. transcellular fluids

Pericardial, synovial, and peritoneal fluids

n. 1,500 mg/day

Average urine output

s. 200 ml/day

Average production of metabolic water

u. cutaneous transpiration

Included in insensible water loss

m. hypovolemia

Results from net loss of proportionate amounts of Na+ and H2O

f. H2CO3

A weak acid

y. proteins

Buffers most responsible for stabilizing the pH of the blood

o. NH3

Buffer in the renal tubules that supplements the action of bicarbonate ions

r. alkalosis

Result of an excess of bicarbonate ions

C

Volume excess is the opposite of
A) hypotonic hydration.
B) dehydration.
C) volume depletion.
D) water intoxication.
E) positive water balance.

E

Blockage of the lymphatic vessels draining a region of the body is most likely to cause
A) insensible water loss.
B) cutaneous transpiration.
C) negative water balance.
D) positive water balance.
E) edema.

B

The blood plasma is about _____ of the total body water.
A) 2%
B) 8%
C) 25%
D) 35%
E) 48%

E

Atrial natriuretic factor is secreted in response to
A) hyponatremia.
B) hypernatremia.
C) aldosterone.
D) Hypotension.
E) hypertension.

B

Antidiuretic hormone
A) increases water and sodium reabsorption.
B) increases water reabsorption but not sodium reabsorption.
C) increases urine output but not urine concentration.
D) increases the volume and concentration of the urine.
E) reduces the glomerular filtration rate.

A

Which of the following cations is most concentrated in the intracellular fluid?
A) K+
B) Na+
C) NH4
D) Fe2+
E) Ca2+

B

Which of the following cations is most concentrated in the extracellular fluid?
A) K+
B) Na+
C) NH4
D) Fe2+
E) Ca2+

C

A deficiency of potassium ions in the blood is called
A) hyperpotassemia.
B) hypernatremia.
C) hypokalemia.
D) hypotassemia.
E) hypophosphatemia.

A

People who have lost a lot of blood often feel intensely thirsty. This is because
A) angiotensin II is produces and stimulates the thirst center.
B) the osmolarity of the remaining blood is elevated.
C) the hypothalamic osmoreceptors respond to falling blood pressure.
D) ADH is released and stimulates the thirst center.
E) the loss of plasma electrolytes stimulates the thirst center.

A

The lymphatic system helps maintain fluid balance by
A) returning fluid from the interstitial compartment to the bloodstream.
B) transferring excess water from the bloodstream to the tissue fluid.
C) compensating for the hypovolemia by releasing stored fluid to the tissues.
D) compensating for hypervolemia by absorbing and storing excess fluid.
E) maintaining equilibrium between fluid intake and output.

E

Aldosterone has which of the following effects?
A) increases Na+ and K+ reabsorption
B) reduces Na+ and K+ reabsorption
C) causes the urine to be more dilute
D) reduces Na+ reabsorption and increases K+ reabsorption
E) increases Na+ reabsorption and reduces K+ reabsorption

C

Increasing the K+ concentration of the extracellular fluid (ECF) will
A) cause more K+ ro diffuse out of the cells into the ECF.
B) usually not affect the intracellular K+ concentration.
C) raise cell membrane potentials and make cells more excitable.
D) lower cell membrane potentials and make cells more excitable.
E) lower cell membrane potentials and make cells less excitable.

B

If a person's urine has an unusually high concentration of ammonium chloride, we would suspect that the person has
A) Addison's disease.
B) acidosis.
C) alkalosis.
D) hyperchloremia.
E) an abnormally high rate of amino acid catabolism.

E

The volume of water in a cell is governed mainly by the amount of _____ in the cytoplasm.
A) protein
B) HCO3
C) Cl-
D) Na+
E) K+

B

Which of the following diseases is most likely to produce metabolic acidosis?
A) emphysema
B) diabetes mellitus
C) diabetes insipidus
D) Addison's disease
E) tuberculosis

B

Urine normally has a pH of approximately
A) 4.5.
B) 5.5.
C) 7.4.
D) 8.2.
E) 9.1.

lesser omentum

The _____ is a serous membrane that extends from the lesser curvature of the stomach to the liver.

amylases

The starch-digesting enzymes of the saliva and pancreatic juice are called _____.

myenteric

Activities of different regions of the digestive tract are coordinated with each other through the _____ nerve plexus between two layers of the muscularis externa.

chyme

The partially digested slurry that passes from the stomach into the small intestine is called _____.

emulsified

As a prelude to enzymatic digestion, fat must be _____, or broken up into small droplets suspended in the chyme.

secretin

The duodenal hormone _____ stimulates the liver and pancreas to secrete bicarbonate.

true

The external anal sphincter allows for voluntary control over the time of defecation.

true

Digestive enzymes digest each other, allowing the amino acids to be absorbed and reused.

false

There are normally 32 teeth in the maxilla and 32 in the mandible.

true

A high-fat meal remains in the stomach longer than a high-carbohydrate meal.

false

The pancreas secretes insulin and glucagon into the duodenum.

false

The stomach lining is so well protected by mucus and tight junctions that its epithelial cells die at a very slow rate.

true

Ingested food raises the pH of the stomach contents.

true

The stomach secretes gastrin when its internal pH rises.

p. dentin

Tissue that constitutes most of the bulk of the tooth

t. lingual lipase

Salivary enzyme that is activated in the stomach

e. parietal cells

Stomach cells that secrete hydrochloric acid

r. pharaynx

Has superior, middle, and inferior constrictors

m. gastrin

Secreted by G cells of the gastric glands

c. vagus nerves

Route of the nerve signals in the long reflexes of the digestive tract

a. maltose

Disaccharide produced by starch digestion

k. duodenum

Source of cholecystokinin

e. parietal cells

Site of H+-K+ ATPase

s. micelles

Emulsified lipid droplets in the small intestine

E

All of the following except _____ contribute to the large surface area available for nutrient absorption in the small intestine.
A) circular folds
B) intestinal length
C) microvilli
D) villi
E) rugae

C

If a person has malocclusion (mal- =bad),
A) he or she has difficulty swallowing.
B) there is an occlusion (obstruction) of the bile duct, perhaps by gallstones.
C) the teeth do not meet properly when the mouth is closed.
D) he or she has constipation.
E) he or she had indigestion.

B

Which of the following cells are not found in the gastric glands?
A) chief cells
B) goblet cells
C) parietal cells
D) mucous neck cells
E) enteroendocrine cells

D

The swallowing center is located in
A) the mouth
B) the oropharynx
C) the esophagus
D) the brainstem
E) the enteric nervous system

A

Bacteria -destroying macrophages are found in sinusoids of
A) the liver.
B) the pancreas.
C) the intestinal crypts.
D) the gastric glands.
E) the appendix.

A

Vitamin B12, which is needed for red blood cell production, requires _____ for its absorption.
A) intrinsic factor
B) bile salts
C) lecithin
D) hydrochloric acid
E) enterokinase

D

Chylomicrons are produced in
A) the mouth, by the action of lingual lipase.
B) the stomach, by the action of the gastric lipase
C) the lumen of the small intestine, as lipids are absorbed
D) the epithelial cells of the small intestine, as lipids are absorbed
E) the lymph, as fats are absorbed

A

The release of bile into the duodenum is controlled by
A) the hepatopancreatic sphincter.
B) the gastroesphageal sphincter.
C) the pyloric sphincter.
D) the biliary valve.
E) the ileocecal valve.

D

Which of these is the site of contact digestion?
A) the gastric pits
B) the surface of the gastric mucosa
C) the intestinal crypts
D) the brush border of the small intestine
E) the cytoplasm of the small intestinal cells

C

What are Peyer's patches, and where are they located?
A) mucous glands of the duodenal submucosa
B) fatty, clublike appendages on the serosa of the colon
C) lymphatic follicles of the ileum
D) peptic ulcers that may occur in the stomach or duodenum
E) lymphatic tissues of the oropharynx

A

Of the following components of bile, only _____ has/have a digestive function.
A) bile salts
B) bilirubin
C) cholesterol
D) phospholipids
E) neutral fats

E

The absorption of _____ depends on the presence of vitamin D.
A) vitamin K
B) cholesterol
C) nucleotides
D) glucose
E) calcium

A

Most of the water entering the digestive tract each day comes from
A) gastrointestinal secretions.
B) beverages.
C) food.
D) transpiration.
E) metabolic water.

B

The small intestine is suspended from the dorsal body wall by
A) the falciform ligament.
B) the mesentary.
C) the greater omentum.
D) the lesser omentum.
E) the epiploic appendages.

hypoglycemia

A deficiency of blood glucose is called _____.

glucose sparing

Fat has a _____ effect, meaning that by meeting the energy needs of many tissues, it leaves more glucose available for those tissues that depend on it exclusively.

essential

There are ten amino acids that the body cannot synthesize and therefore must acquire from the diet. They are called the _____ amino acids.

chylomicrons

Lipoproteins that transport newly absorbed dietary fats in the lymph and blood are called _____.

glycolysis

The metabolic reaction chain that splits glucose into two molecules of pyrvic acid is called _____.

glycogenolysis

When stored glycogen is needed for energy, it is hydrolyzed to glucose through a preocess called _____.

post absorptive

when the stomach and small intestine are empty and the body is drawing on its stored energy reserves, it is in the _____ state.

true

HDL's contain more protein and less lipid than LDL's.

true

No significant amount of the body's energy requirement comes from vitamins.

false

Plant foods contain more salt (NaCl) than meats do.

true

It is undesirable to consume large doses of fat-soluble vitamins.

true

Even though fiber is important in health, it is not considered a nutrient.

false

Even though water is important in health, it is not considered a nutrient.

l. cholesterol

The major components of LDL's

y. intestinal epithelium

The site of chylomicron formation

v. hypoglycemia

Deficiency of blood glucose

v. hypoglycemia

Prevented by glucagon following a high-protein meal

i. carotene

The dietary provitamin that the body converts to vitamin A

m. pyruvic acid

The major end product of glycolysis

l. cholesterol

Transported to the liver in HDL's to be disposed of in the bile

k. anorexia

Effect of a lesion in the hunger center of the hypothalamus

n. mitochondrial cristae

Location of ATP synthase

g. cholecystokinin

An appetite-suppressing hormone

A

In a state of nitrogen balance
A) nitrogen intake and output are equal.
B) the rates of muscle growth and atrophy are equal.
C) equal amounts of nitrogen are supplied by proteins and nucleic acids.
D) 50% of the RDA of nitrogen comes from essential amino acids and 50% is produced in the body.

D

A gram of fat has about _____ the calories of a gram of starch.
A) one-tenth
B) one-half
C) one-fourth
D) twice
E) five times

A

Eicosanoids and bile salts are made from which of the following nutrients?
A) lipids
B) minerals
C) vitamins
D) proteins
E) carbohydrates

D

Which of the following is not a macronutrient?
A) fat
B) starch
C) protein
D) calcium
E) water

A

When fats are incompletely oxidized, they yield _____, which may cause acidosis.
A) ketones
B) fatty acids
C) glycerol
D) amino acids
E) acetal groups

B

During periods of fasting, fat is said to have a protein-sparing effect because the body
A) oxidizes its spare proteins unless it depletes its fat reserves.
B) does not oxidize its proteins unless it has consumed its fat reserves.
C) must have an adequate fat intake in order to absorb and metabolize fats.
D) must have an adequate protein intake in order to absorb and metabolize fats.
E) metabolizes fats and proteins through the same metabolic pathways.

E

Which of the following is not a dietary source of cholesterol?
A) eggs
B) liver
C) whole milk
D) shrimp
E) corn oil

D

The highest percentage of cholesterol is found in
A) chylomicrons
B) chylomicron remnants
C) VLDL's
D) LDL's
E) HDL's

E

Which of the following would provide the lowest quantity of minerals for a given weight of food?
A) peas and beans
B) eggs and milk
C) broccoli and carrots
D) fish and oysters
E) rice and white flour

C

All of the following vitamins except _____ are fat-soluble.
A) A
B) K
C) C
D) D
E) E

C

Approximately _____ of the energy in a glucose molecule winds up in ATP molecules at the end of aerobic respiration?
A) 10%
B) 20%
C) 40%
D) 80%
E) 98%

A

The conversion of amino acids to glucose is called
A) gluconeogenesis.
B) glycogenesis.
C) glycogenolysis.
D) glycolysis.
E) glyconeogenesis.

B

The liver performs all of the following functions except
A) glycogenesis.
B) secretion of digestive enzymes.
C) phagocytosis.
D) detoxification.
E) synthesis of plasma proteins.

C

The liver performs all of the following functions except
A) disposal of chylomicron remnants.
B) production of high-density lipoproteins.
C) absorption of digested nutrients.
D) synthesis of urea.
E) synthesis of clotting factors.

C

The synthesis and storage of triglycerides is called
A) Beta-oxidation.
B) ketogenesis.
C) lipogenesis.
D) lipolysis
E) the fat-sparing effect.

A

Which of the following nutrients is most likely to circulate through the skeletal muscle before it ever circulates through the liver?
A) a triglyceride
B) an amino acid
C) galactose
D) ascorbic acid
E) magnesium

B

The loss of body heat by conduction can be enhanced by
A) radiation.
B) convection.
C) non-shivering thermogenesis
D) shivering thermogenesis
E) evaporation.

A

Heat exhaustion results from
A) extreme electrolyte loss in the sweat.
B) denaturation of proteins in the brain tissue.
C) excessive heat loss from the body.
D) a high rate of conduction and convection.
E) a high humidity that retards evaporative cooling.

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