Thomas Henry Huxley
(1825-1895) British scientist and supporter of Darwinism. Became a leading critic against Social Darwinism and wrote "Evolution in Ethics" in 1893 to publish his beliefs. Believed that "human ethical progress occurs through combating the cosmic process."
effectively discredited the long-standing view that the earth's surface had been formed by short-lived cataclysms, such as biblical floods and earthquakes-his principle: uniformitarianism: same geological processes that are at work today slowly formed the earth's surface over an immensely long time
A conservative prime minister of Prussia. He was an architect of German unification under the Prussian king in 1870. He utilized liberal reforms to attracted support for conservative causes.
As for the papacy, the initial cautious support by Pius IX (r. 1846-1878)) for unification had given way to fear and hostility after he was temporarily driven from Rome during the upheavals of 1848. For a long generation, the papacy would stand resolutely opposed not only to national unification but also to most modern trends. In 1864 in the Syllabus of Errors, Pius IX strongly denounced rationalism, socialism, separation of church and state, and religious liberty, denying, "The Roman pontiff can and ought to reconcile and align himself with progress, liberalism, and modern civilization." (p. 826)
Rerum Novarum, He condemned socialism and Marxism for its atheism and opposition to private property. Insisted on the moral obligation of employers to pay a living wage to workers.
antimodernist; he condemned catholc modernism and had all priests take and antimodernist oath
German physicist who developed quantum theory and was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1918.
A German physicist that speculated that there was no real certainty in where an electron was, and only tendencies. This broke down Newton's dependable laws to only probabilities.
Madame Bovary (1857), the masterpiece of Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880), if fart narrower in scope than Balzac's work but unparalleled in its depth and accuracy of psychological insight. Unsuccessfully prosecuted as an outrage against public morality and religion, Flaubert's carefully crafted novel tells the ordinary, even banal, story of a frustrated middle-class housewife who has an adulterous love affair and is betrayed by her lover. Without moralizing, Flaubert portrays the provincial middle class as petty, smug, and hypocritical. (p.816)
In 1868 Emile Zola (1840-1902), the giant of the realist movement in literature, defended his violently criticized first novel against charges of pornography and corruption of morals. Zola's literary manifesto articulated the key themes of realism, which had emerged in the 1840's and continued to dominate Western culture and style until the 1890's. Zola was most famous for his seamy, animalistic view of working-class life. But he also wrote gripping carefully researched stories featuring the stock exchange, the big department store, and the army, as well as urban slums and bloody coal strikes. (p.815)
George Bernard Shaw
(1856-1950) Born in Dublin, worked in London. Freethinker, feminist, socialist, vegetarian writer of more than 50 plays that focus on the conflict between thought and belief. "Pygmalion," "Arms and the Man," "Man and Superman," "Major Barbara," "Mrs. Warren's Profession."
Member of the unconventional and innovative Bloomsbury group; an openly homosexual man that was friends with Virginia Woolf until his death in 1932. This British author incorporated psychological insight into his literary works, something developed on by fellow Bloomsbury group member Virginia Woolf with her "stream of consciousness" writing
John Maynard Keynes
English economist who advocated the use of government monetary and fiscal policy to maintain full employment without inflation (1883-1946)
French author who wrote autobiographical Remembrance of Things Past ,that recalls bittersweet memories in order to discern their meaning. In order to write this novel, he lived like a hermit in a soundproof apartment for ten years.
influential Irish writer noted for his many innovations (such as stream of consciousness writing) (1882-1941)
"Music in the Tuileries" was one of his early works, but he is more well-known for "Luncheon on the Grass"
founding painter of French impressionist style, expression of perceptions of nature. painted "Lady With a Parasol" (1875)
he painted in pointilism and painted "Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte"
French painter who led the cubist movement (1882-1963)
German sociologist that regarded the development of rational social orders as humanity's greatest achievement. Saw bureaucratization (the process whereby labor is divided into an organized community and individuals acquire a sense of personal identity by finding roles for themselves in large systems) as the driving force in modern society.
Believed in functionalism and the scientific method; saw society as a set of independent parts that maintain a system but each separate part has a function
Count Arthur de Gobineau
was the first French diplomat who enunciated the first important theory of race as the major determinant of human history. He claimed that the troubles in the Western civilization was due to the degeneration of the Aryan race.
founder of Zionism
(1828-1906) English reformer who challenged the Contagious Diseases Acts in order to protect the livelihood and rights of women.
led the general austrian women's association