Indus Valley Civilization
Also known as Harappan and/or Dravidian culture
belief in nature spirits/deities
having human form or characteristics
a distinct design element
the use of signs and symbols to identify a subject in art; the study of signs and symbols in art
3rd member of the Hindu trinity, emblematic of both destruction and procreative power, believed by some to have evolved from ancient Dravidian beliefs
adhering as closely as possible to the appearance of the natural world
literary texts of the Aryans; term applied to the 4 religious books containing the sacred knowledge for the performance of Brahmanic priestly ritual
the Ramayana and Mahabharata, Aryan-Vedic literary texts
Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaisya, and Shudra (Sudra)
also called Siddhartha, Gautama, Sakyamuni
the most famous ruler of Mauryan Empire, Ashoka, ruled from (c.BLANK-BLANK BC)
decorative top of a column
in architecture, the cylindrical, vertical support member in a post and lintel system of construction is called a BLANK
Post and Lintel (system)
a type of architectural construction in which two vertical members (posts) support horizontal members (lintels)
"The Universal King," title adopted by King Ashoka
Buddhist relic mound
represented as a symbol rather than as a representational likeness
in Indian architecture, a monumental gate
railing, outer wall or fence surrounding a scared structure, such as a stupa
"Birth stories," tales of previous incarnations of the Buddha in either human or animal form
art that tells a story
male dravidian nature spirit associated with fertility
female dravidian nature spirit associated with fertility
"living couple" motif consisting of a pair of male and female figures, often in an amorous attitude; the motif is believed to bring fertility, good luck and protection, and is believed to derive from ancient Dravidian art and customs, related to yaksha and yakshi figures
in sculpture, figures projecting from a background of which they are a part
sculpture in the round
in architecture, the principal face(s) of a structure
a curved structural member that spans an opening and is generally composed of wedge-shaped blocks (voussoirs) that transmit the downward pressure laterally
a distinctive arch form in Indian architecture, the double curved or pointed arch
sanctuary or shrine
majority of ancient Indian population lived on the left side of India in the...
What year was the discovery of ancient Indian civilization?
Sir Mortimer Wheeler
The Indus Valley Civilization was uncovered during the development of a
Which city was built on artificial mounds to avoid the possibility of floods?
The type of plan builders followed in Mohenjo-Daro is...
The trefoil on the Bust Priest/King is an example of a...
the artistic method in which the trefoil was applied on the Bust Priest/King; taking some material and applying to the surface of other material with metal and paste
Studying practices of living cultures and taking info and applying it to a culture of past that is of a relative cultural tradition or similar stage of cultural development.
(of a style of art) showing things as they actually appear in real life
Graphic representation of the layout of building or site; heavy dark elements: touch the ground or bear weight. Super structure: above ground.
indicates reconstruction on a plan
reduction or simplification of form, according to a series of conventions
lowerclass farmers tended to live BLANK of the city
plain (simple, little adorement)
surviving IVC architecture is pretty BLANK; the great bath is an example of this trend
The great bath was used for...
In IVC, she was responsible for procreation of people, plants and animals.
worshiped as the "lord of the beasts," eventually becomes associated with birth and destruction
The seals were commonly used to seal contracts and to wear as...
The Dravidian people practiced phallic worship and were known as the "people of the BLANK"
Pastoral, people who herded animals, people who invaded the non-warlike IVC were called the BLANKS; also known as "the noble ones"
Some scholars argue we should play down the militarism aspect of the...
BLANK emerged as a blending of Aryan and native Indian cultures--initially known as "Aryan-vedic"
Originally a collection of oral poems and hymns. not put down to written form until around 1000 BC. The aryan-vedic texts also known as the...
In Hinduism, there is only one god with multiple...
All priests are from the BLANK caste; not all of this caste are priests, but it is a prerequisite to be a priest.
The merchant/trader class, "derived from the thighs," is known as...
Buddhism and Jainism
Social revolution took place around 600 BC against Aryan-vedic hierarchy, resulting in two new religions:
Buddhism and Jainism stress non-violence or...
Buddha, born a prince, also known as Siddhartha, was born to the family name....
Buddha's sage name of the sakya clan...
He was conceived as an elephant, born from her side, under the sacred tree...
Most Buddhist early artwork, such as Dream of Queen Maya, was commissioned by BLANK
sum and consequences of one's actions in a phase of existence; the path people must follow to break chain of human suffering, and to achieve enlightenment
Man must follow the middle path of
how many paths? kindness to all living things, purity of heart, charity , etc.
extinction of karma
was Buddha considered a deity in HIS time?
Buddhism was very important to the merchant class, also known as the BLANK caste
the rulers of this empire united large political territory in India around 322-185 BC...known as the BLANK empire
Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Mauryan Empire, inspired by the imperialism of Alexander the Great, accomplished his imperial expansion of India through...
Ashoka (the Great)
The earliest and most renowned patron of Buddhism and Buddhist art in Asia; he is said to have found the many bodies of a battle field abhorrent; so he decided to roll Buddha-style.
Buddhism was the official state religion of which empire, under the rule of Ashoka.
Ashoka used Buddhism as a political tool to gain control of the merchant middle class--true or false?
Mauryan art pieces are very shiny, as opposed to the typically grainy sandstone; this shininess is known as...
Ashoka adopted the title of BLANK or "turner of the wheel." Ashoka claimed to extend his empire peacefully throughout the world; yet, he conquered, AND THEN imposed a "non-violence" state religion--how convenient?
The BLANKS were made out to be Buddhist reforms, but were actually state-ruled mandates. (pillars of Ashoka)
succeeded Mauryans--but continued the Maurayn tradition of official state patronage of Buddhism; idealized Ashoka. This period is known as the
The Buddha, the Dharma and the monks
3 jewels of Buddhism? Each chatra is symbolic of these 3 jewels.
a cosmic diagram
Stupas are actually solid--"dome" being a bit of a misnomer. True or false?
The toranas were decorated with immoral stories intended to mislead pilgrims. True or false?
The BLANK monument is one of the most well-known pieces of the Andhra period
Chaitya arch displaces what percentage of the weight of the super structure to the sides?
The Chaitya Hall plan is axial and longitudinal--true or false?
We suspect the Mithuna couple found on the Chaitya Hall to have been the donors of the project. True or false?
The Robed Male Figure, or Bust of Priest-King (or Deity), is made of steatite and dates to (c.BLANK-BLANK BC)
The Great Bath
At Mohenjo-Daro, what is made of mud brick and dates to c.2300-1750 BC
Indus Valley Civilization/Harappan Culture
The "Mother Goddess" figure is made of clay and dates to c.2300-1750 BC; in what period was it created?
The seals found in the Indus Valley, such as the Bull and Yogi Figure surround by Animals, date to...
(The) Mauryan (Period)
The Edict Pillar of Ashoka, made of stone, dating to c.242 BC, was created during which period?
(The) Shunga (Period)
Dream of Queen Maya, made of sandstone, dating to around the 2nd century BC, was created in which period?
Mauryan and Andhra (Periods)
Stupa I (The Great Stupa) at Sanchi, made of earth and stone, dating from the 3rd century BC through the 1st century AD, is attributed to which two periods?
1st century AD
From what century are the Andhra Period Toranas, made of stone, from Stupa I, believed to have been created?
The Chaitya Hall
What art piece, created during the Andhra Period; dating between the 1st and 2nd centuries AD; made of stone, can be found at Karli?
(The) Andhra (Period)
The Mithuna Couple or Donor Couple, found on the Facade of the Chaitya Hall at Karli, dating from the 1st-2nd century AD, made of stone, is attributed to which period?