Antibody to HIV develop in an infected individual within ___ wks to ___ mos.
EIA aka _____ ______ Detect antibodies to HIV proteins. Saliva & Blood can be used for testing. Less specific and can result in false-positive reaction, less expensive for lab to run
"_______ Blot" is a Seropositive testing, confirmation of the existence of the virus.
____ ____ Determine the status of the immune system & strength of the virus.
CD4 (T-cell) count: normal value ____-_____ cells.
<500/mm 3 = considered abnormal. HIV-RNA or viral load is measured to determine how virulent the virus is. CD4 count & the Viral load are performed regularly on infected persons to ascertain the need for antiretroviral therapy & adequacy of response to these meds.
HIV-RNA or viral load, determine how _____the virus is.
The one test that is considered the best & most common one for HIV?
Autoimmune disorder, i.e. Lupus, body does not recognize/tolerate the self as "___". Results in damage to the body tissues by the immune system
Women are more likely to develop autoimmune disorder female:male ratio, cause thymic, sex hormones.
Inflammatory bowel disease
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Organ Transplant rejection syndrome
_______ - Specific
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Chronic active hepatitis
Systmic Lupus Erythematosus
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: antibodies that fight thebody's own tissue and cells. It is widespread damage to connective tissues, the hematologic system, skin, kidney, heart, and brain. Tx: rest & stress mgmt & use of anti-inflammatory agent & corticosteroids.
HIV, a ____virus, need the cell from its host (attacking CD4 cells) & replicate itself & changing how the cell works by the enzyme called reverse transcriptase.
T Cells; B cells
HIV invades which two types of cells? ____ ___aka CD4 (lymphocytes mature in the thymus) ___ ___ (lyphocytes that mature in the bone marrow).
HIV also invades & depletes _____ T4 lymphocytes
________ Infections caused by microorganisms that do not generally cause disease in a person w/a normal immune system.
Opportunistic Infections & cancers acct for a large proportion of deaths related to ____.
If untreated, HIV depletes an individual's immune system over a number of years, minor & Major opportunistic inf & cancers, leading to _____.
Average HIV until AIDS Dx about ___yrs. However time frame varies greatly.
______Therapy have profound affect on the progression of HIV dis; droup in the amt of circulating virus & restoration of immune function as measured by T cell count. Decrease in freq. of opportunistic infections & number of deaths
HIV Transmitted through infected body ____.
HIV transmitted by unprotected sexual contact:
Pregnant woman can transmit HIV/Aids to her ____; and by breastfeeding.
Transplant recipients are at _________ at risk for HIV.
Donors are screened for HIV.
HIV virus identified in 1983;
Virus has reached "Pandemic" (Global geographic areas)
Fastest-growing groups of persons becoming infected with HIV:
Women, ________ & persons older than 50 yrs.
Heterosexual transmission increasing across ethnic groups & assorted age groups
__/__ of HIV:
Respiratory:( SOB to Pneumocystis carini),
Gastrointestinal: Anorexia to Wasting syndrome),
Neurologic (Death, HIV encephalopathy (aka AIDS)
Integumentary Manifestations: Skin lesions & painful vesicles, Kaposi's sarcoma to Herpes zoster and herpes simplex; side effect of drug trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) that appears as pruritic with pinkish-red macules & papulr.
HIV infection in _________ may be overlooked & attributed to other disorders, STD's or STI's, HPV or PID.
Other s/s: Recurrent Vaginal Candidiasis, Menstrual abnormalities or bleeding btwn periods, Abnormal Pap tests, _________ cancer.
*Short, flu-like illness-occurs 1-6 weeks after infection or
*No symptoms at all
*Infected person can infect other people
Stage 1-____ stage
* In early phase HIV infection, initial viruses are M-tropic. Their envelope glycoprotein gp120 is able to bind to CD4 molecules & chemokine receptors called CCR5 found on macrophages.
*lasts for an average of ten yrs
*This stage is free from symptoms
*there may be swollen glands
*The level of HIV in the blood drops to very low levels
*HIV antibodies are detectable in the blood
*The symptoms are mild
*The immune system deteriorates
*Emergence of opportunistic infections & cancers; Oral Hairy Leukoplakia; Karposi's Sarcoma
*The immune system weakens
*The illnesses become more severe leading to an AIDS diagnosis
*Late stage: In late phase HIV infection, most of the virus are T-Tropic
HIV persons with T-cellCD4 count below _____/mm3 may be considered to have a Dx o advanced HIV / AIDS. Also, persons with HI and certain opportunistic infections or cancers also are considered to have AIDS:
*Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
*Oral Hairy Leukoplakia:
Being that HIV reduces immunologic activity, the intraoral environment is a prime target for chronic 2ndary infections & inflammatory processes, incl'ding OHL, which is due to the Epstein-Barr virus under immunosuppressed cond.
*Karposi's Sarcoma (KS):
A rare cancer of the blood vessels that is associated with HIV. Bluish-red oval-shaped patches that may eventually become thickened. Lesions may appear singly or in clusters.
If CD4/T cell count drops below ___:
*Most deaths occur with CD4 counts below this count.
*Hemolytic transfusion reactions
*AIDS; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome