Process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from anther strain of bacteria.
Virus that infects bacteria.
Monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
Principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine.
Granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins.
Globular protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin.
Copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA.
Enzyme that "proofreads" new DNA strands, helping to ensure that each molecule is a nearly perfect copy of the original DNA.
Sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait.
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell.
Types of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes.
Type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis.
Process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence of RNA.
Enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription.
Region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA.
Intervening sequence of DNA; does not code for a protein.
Expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein.
three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
mutation that affects a single nucleotide, usually by substituting one nucleotide for another
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes
group of genes operating together
region of chromosome in an operon to which the repressor binds when the operon is "turned off"
process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
series of genes that controls the organs and tissues that develop in various parts of an embryo