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gametophyte

the gamete-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations

Sporophyte

Spore-producing plant, Diploid.

Antheridium

the male sex organ of spore-producing plants

Archegonium

the female reproductive structure in which eggs are produced

Rhizoids

roots of bryophytes, a few epidermal cells that anchor the plant to the soil

Spores

a single reproductive cell that grows into a new plant

Germination

early growth stage of a plant embryo

Fertilization

creation by the physical union of male and female gametes

Haploid

(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes

Diploid

(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number

Prothallus

the structure in ferns that produces gametes.

frond

The leaf of a fern

pinna

division of a usually pinnately divided leaf

xylem

the vascular tissue through which water and nutrients move in some plants

phloem

the vascular tissue of a plant that transports organic materials (photosynthetic products)

roots

Absorbs water and minerals from the ground. Anchors plant in ground.

sori

fern structures in which spores are produced

sporangium

a structure in which spores are produced

spores

reproductive cells that can develop into another organism without fusing with another cell.

sorus

cluster of sporangia usually on underside of a fern frond

atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

Atomic Mass

Total mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom, measured in atomic mass units

Period Number

the numbers on the periodic table that are going vertically- tells us the number of rings that an atom has

Mitosis

cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

meiosis

(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms

spindle fibers

strands that pull sister chromatids (act like "puppet-strings")

Centrioles

Located near the nucleus and help to organize cell division

Centromeres

area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached

Homolgus Pairs

pair of identical chromosomes

sister chromatids

two daughter strands of a replicated chromosome joined at the middle by a centromere

Prophase

first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus

Metaphase

second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell

Anaphase

the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles

Telophase

the final stage of meiosis when the chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle

double helix

two strands of nucleotides wound about each other; structure of DNA. Antiparel

Lac Operon

a cluster of genes under the control of one promoter and one operator; the genes collectively code for the enzymes and proteins required for a bacterial cell to use lactose as a nutrient

Translocation

change to a chromosome in which a fragment of one chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome

base pairing

principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine

Watson and Crick

nobel prize winners for correctly describing the structure of DNA as a double helix

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