The belief that it was the US's undeniable fate to possess the entire continent of North America
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What happened to the first treaty of annexation with Texas?
It was signed by President Tyler in 1844, but not approved by the Whig-controlled Senate
What happened to the second treaty of annexation with Texas?
It was signed by President Polk in 1845, and the Senate approved it.
How did the Mexican American war start?
Polk ordered 3,000 troops into south Texas, and they skirmished with Mexican forces. He persuaded Congress to declare war when American blood was shed on the newly-annexed American land.
When was the Mexican-American war?
What was the Bear Flag Revolt?
When American settlers, under Captain John Fremont, drove the Mexican army out of the Mexican territory of California.
What did General Winfield Scott do?
He marched his army of 10,000 to Mexico City and captured it, ending the war.
What were the terms of the treaty of Guidalupe Hidalgo?
Mexico gave up Texas, New Mexico, and California and recognized Rio Grande as southern boundary of US. The US paid Mexico 15 million dollars.
What was the Gadsden purchase?
When the US purchased 30,000 miles of land in New Mexico and Arizona.
Describe the population growth in California due to the Gold Rush?
From 1848 to 1852, the population grew from 14,000 to 200,000.
What was the Wilmot Proviso?
A bill in Congress which stated that slavery would not be permitted in any of the land acquired from Mexico.
Who proposed the Compromise of 1850?f
Henry Clay from Kentucky
What were the terms of the Compromise of 1850?
1.California would be a free state
2. New Mexico and Utah would decide for themselves.
3. No sale of slaves in DC
4. Texas gives up New Mexico claims.
5. The Fugitive Slave Act
What was the Fugitive Slave Act?
All citizens must assist in the return of escaped slaves. Escaped slaves do not have a jury trial.
Who was John C. Calhoun?
A South Carolina congressman who said the North had an unfair advantage in the slavery question due to its greater population.
Who was Daniel Webster?
A Massachusetts congressman who became unpopular after he supported the Compromise of 1850.
Through this book, many northerners saw the evils of slavery for the first time.
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe
Senator who introduced the Kansas- Nebraska Act
What were the terms of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.?
Two new territories, Kansas and Nebraska, were created. Slavery there would be decided by popular sovereignty.
A belief that local populations should decide issues own their own
What happened to the Whig party during the 1850s?
It disappeared because members were unhappy with their leadership and because the American Party gained membership.
A movement opposed to immigrants
Another name for the American Party. They promoted nativism.
Trends in immigration
Between 1846 and 1854, close to 3 million immigrants came to America
What was the Republican Party?
Created in 1854 to oppose slavery, it is a direct ancestor to today's Republican party.
Why was Kansas called "Bleeding Kansas"?
Because of the conflict between the free-soilers and the proslavery settlers. There was a proslavery capital, Lecompton, and an antislavery capital, Topeka.
The Election of 1856
A pro-compromise Democrat candidate, James Buchanan, won over a Republican antislavery candidate.
Who was Dred Scott?
A slave who had lived with his owner in free states. He sued his owner for his freedom.
What was the Dred Scott decision?
A landmark Supreme court case in which the court decided that slaves did not have citizenship rights and that Congress had no right to ban slavery anywhere.
What was the effect of the Dred Scott decision?
Slavery was constitutional everywhere in the United States.
What were the Lincoln Douglas Debates?
Famous debates held between two candidates for Senator for Illinois in 1858, Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas. Douglas won the election, but these debates established Lincoln's reputation for logic and debate.
What was John Brown's raid?
John Brown and his followers tried to take weapons from a federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry in order to arm a slave rebellion.
What happened to the Democratic Party during the election of 1860?
It split between the North and the South.
Who did Southern Democrats nominate for President in 1860?
Who did Northern Democrats nominate for President in 1860?
Who did the moderate Southerners nominate for President in 1860?
Who did the Republican party nominate in 1860?
How many electoral votes did Lincoln receive from southern states.
". . .hideous, revolting, loathsome, a menace not only to the Union of these states, but to society.. . "
A Georgia newspaper's description of the Republican party after Lincoln won the election of 1860
The name of the seceded states
The Confederate States of America
The event that started the war
The Confederate army fired on Fort Sumter in South Carolina on April 12, 1861
What were the Transcendentalists beliefs?
Humans are good, spiritual discovery and self reliance are important
What was the Temperance Movement?
It began in the early 1800s, and its goal was to eliminate alcohol consumption.
What were temperance societies?
These were groups formed between 1815 and 1840 to promote temperance.
An education reformer
Amount of alcohol consumed in 1830
6.5 gallons per person per year
Amount of alcohol consumed in 1850
1.9 gallons per person per year
What was school reform in the 1900s?
In the 1820s, many citizens wanted tax-supported schools. By the 1850s, most northern states had public school systems, the these were less common in the South. Education was still considered important mostly for white men, not women or blacks.
What was prison reform?
Prisons had inhumane conditions, and mental institutions were scarce. This movement was to improve prisons and create more mental institutions.
What were utopian communities?
There were over 100 utopian communities in the 1800s. These wre small societies which were intended to achieve communal perfection, but they usually ended in quarrels.
By 1804 every state north of Maryland made laws to eliminate slavery gradually.
What was the colonization of Liberia started?
Some abolitionists felt that blacks would never receive equal treatment, so they established a colony in West Africa, Liberia, for freed American.
Who was William Lloyd Garrison?
A radical northern abolitionist
The abolition newspapers
The Liberator published by Garrison and the North Star published by Douglass
What was the name of Garrison's antislavery group?
The American Anti-Slavery Society
Sarah and Angelina Grimke, Sojourner Truth.
Describe the Underground Railroad
A network of escape routes for slaves fleeing north.
A famous conductor of the Underground Railroad
White reactions to free blacks
Most Northerners did not want African Americans living in their communities.
What happened to Elijah Lovejoy?
He was shot and killed for continuing to print antislavery articles in Illinois.
A ruling in the House of Representatives which prohibited the reading of any antislavery petition in the House.
How did the role of women change in the 1900s
More working outside the home, but they did not keep the money and many states did not allow women to own property. Women still did not vote. However, increasing education and participation in reform improved womens' confidence.
Organizers of the first women's right convention
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
What resolutions were written at the Seneca Falls Convention?
The Declaration of Sentiments
What is suffrage?
The right to vote
Number of immigrants in 1820s
Number of immigrants in 1850s
Where did immigrants settle?
In the North. Irish immigrants settled in northern cities, and Germans settled in Midwest farmland.
From where did the immigrants come?
Ireland and Germany
Problems with immigration
Irish would work as strike breakers and they were Catholic, unlike most Americans who were Protestant
What was the anti-immigrant group
The American Republican Party?
What was the Trail of Tears?
In 1838, the Cherokee Indians were forced on a 116-day journey to their reservation in Oklahoma. One-fourth of them died.
What and when was the Bank war?
When Jackson vetoed the charter of the Bank of the US.in 1832, angering his opponents.
What was the Force Bill of 1833?
This authorized President Jackson to use the army to collect tariffs.
What was the Indian Removal Act?
This 1830 act granted the President funds and authority to remove Native Americans off of 100 million acres of land so that cotton farming could occur on that land.
The idea that states have the right to reject federal laws that the state feels is unconstitutional.
The theory that because states created the federal government, they have the right to nullify its acts and even to secede from the union.
Idea that states have the right to limit the power of the federal government
Which tribes which were removed due to the Indian Removal Act?
Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole, and Chickasaw tribes
What was the Tariff Crisis of 1828?
Prior to Jackson's first term, Congress had passed the Tariff of 1828, a heavy tax on imports designed to discourage foreign imports and encourage American manufacturing. The tariff greatly benefited the industrial North but forced southerners to pay higher prices for manufactured goods. They called the import tax the "Tariff of Abominations."
Jackson won. He received 178 electoral votes, Adams won only 83
Agriculture in the Old Northwest
Grew corn, wheat and grains. Created need for new ways to transport these to markets.
The most common form of money in the early 1800s, they were a promise to pay specie, had unpredictable value
Benefits of bank
Can provide capital to help grow the economy
Benefits of free enterprise
It rewards people who find ways to increase productivity. It encourages the creation of new industries, jobs, and wealth.
Wealth that can be invested in productive resources. Is provided by banks.
What were the characteristics of the Market Revolution?
Buying and selling of goods, borrowing and circulating more money, increased wealth, more people working outside the home for money, increased shopping, more comfortable homes.
Chief Justice John Marshall
Presided over Supreme Court during nationalist supreme court decisions
Former slave who planned to seize Charleston, SC, in 1822. He was caught and hanged.
Election of 1824
Jackson won popular vote, but not enough electoral votes to have the majority. Clay gave his electoral votes to Adams, and Adams won.
First completely centralized textile mill (contained both spinning and weaving)
Francis C. Lowell's in Waltham, MA. Opened in 1813
Free enterprise system or capitalism
Economic system based on private or corporate ownership of capital resources
How did Jackson try to limited government?
Jackson rejected more acts of Congress than the previous six Presidents combined.
Industrialization in the Northeast
Population percentage living in cities jumped from 6% to 12% from 1810 to 1840. The mills employed young women to work their spinning and weaving machines. Led to rise of labor unions
Followers of Jackson
When American began buying and selling goods rather than making them themselves.
Set of beliefs developed by President Monroe that stated that America would not become pulled into European wars and also would not permit further colonization of the Americas
Leader of a slave revolt in 1831 in Virginia
Adam's and Clay's supporters
Pride in being part of a nation (opposite of sectionalism where one is proud of one's section of the country).
New England and New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania
Region north and west of the Ohio River, included Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, MIchigan, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota.
Presidential Candidates in the Election of 1824
John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, and Andrew Jackson
What was the process to start a new bank?
Group of private investors obtain a charter from their state.
Regions of the North
The Old Northwest and the Northeast
What were some risks of banks?
Banks might make bad loans, customers lose their savings.
Primarily cotton, but Virginia and North Carolina grew tobacco, South Carolina grew sugar and rise.
Rural, based on slavery.
A work stoppage
The National Trades Union
The Nation's first labor union, organized in 1834. Was short-lived.
The states of the South
Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Arkansas.
What was Jackon's Spoils System?
Jobs for party supporters
Voter Reform in 19th century
State laws requiring property ownership were repealed before 1828; the number of votes tripled between 1824 to 1828.
What year did the Constitution specify that no more slaves could be imported?
What was the tariff crisis?
When South Carolina nullified the Tariff Act.
Cut the Wilderness Road through Appalachians. Settled first in the Ohio Valley, then Missouri.
Population of Us in 1780
Population of US in 1830
Area of expansion north of the Ohio River
Native American tribe in Florida. During the 1810s, they raided southern Georgia and allowed Native Americans to live among them.
Treaty made in 1819 in which Spain gave up Florida.
Originally from Missouri Territory. Founded a colony of Americans in East Texas in 1822 which, by 1835, exceeded 30,000.
General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Dictator of Mexico in 1835
Year that the Texas War for Independence started
A walled mission in San Antonio, Texas, in which Americans took refuge during the Texas War for Independence.
Year that Texas won independence from Mexico
This territory was jointly occupied by the British and Americans after 1818.
The Oregon Country
A religious group founded by Joseph Smith. They migrated from New YOrk to Ohio, then MIssouri, then Illinois, and finallyUtah.
Salt Lake City
The permanent location of the Mormon emigrants.
Educator who believed education was necessary for a national American identity. Also wrote a dictionary.
Self-reliance, industry, frugality, harmony, and sacrifice of individual needs for the good of the community
Built machinery for the first U.S. textile mill
Invented cotton gin
Built first successful steamboat
Built first completely mechanized cotton mill
Factory system in which all parts of a product are made to identical standards
a machine that separates seedds from raw cotton fibers, increased productivity
First used steam engine to make textiles
Artificial waterways that were built because waterways were the cheapest way to transport goods
The National Road
A road begun in 1811 and which started in Cumberland, MD.
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
First railroad built in 1840
Second Great Awakening
Renewal of religious faith in the 1800s.
Characteristics of the Second Great Awakening
Democrative, the congregation was more important than ministers.
Revival or camp meeting
Type of religious meeting during the Second Great Awakening
One of the fastest growing denominations durin ghte 19th century, it believed in baptism for older church members.
Largest Protest denomination in the US in 1850
A Religious denomination which comes from the believe that God is a unity, not a trinity.