Psychology Test 2

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Perceptual Hypothesis

a guess about what a sensation represents that is held until more information is available

psi phenomena

includes clairvoyance, telepathy, and precognition

sleep apnea

a sleep disturbance characterized by snoring, short sliences, and gasps

infants sleep in

2-4 hour blocks of time

the surest way to alter human consciousness is to...

administer a psychoactive drug

a cheetas scrambling up a rocky slope in montana is likely to be perceived as...

a mountain lion because perception is guided by expectations

inductive reasoning

goes from the specific to the general and is analogous to bottom-up processing

accomodation

the process where the lens of the eye changes shape

interneurons

the vast majority of cells in the body's information-processing system

arithmetic reasoning

typically controlled by left hemispere

human genetic diversity

consists of the variationsin the sequence of our nucleotides

chromosomes, words, and genes

books, words, and letters

gender schema theory

when jorge wouldn't play leap-frog with his mother because it was a "girl's game"

taste buds

mainly located on the top side of the tongue especially around the edges

selective attention

ex: that you do not hear the traffic outside of your psychology class because you are ENGROSSED in the lecture

frequency sound theory

explains how sounds up to 4000 hertz reach the brain

the electromagnetic spectrum

includes visible light, infrared, ultraviolet, radio waves, television broadcasts, gamma rays, and other energies

having two ears separated by several inches...

helps identify the direction form which a sound originates

retinal disparity

is similiar to the ability to perceive visual depth

nativists

believe that the depth perception is inborn

cross-cultural experiences

suggest that pictorial cue for depth percption are learned

top-down processing

the analysis of information starting with pre-existing knowledge in order to organize features into a meaningful whole

precognition

the porported ability to predict future events

highway engineers

sometimes paint stripes on freeway off-ramps to enhance the perception of depth, using the cue of texture gradients

pereptual expectancy

with attribute from a widespread increase in the reported sightings of UFOs following newpaper reports of similiar sightings

the biases and errors of people's everyday judgements illustrate
...

the need for critical thinking, curious skepticism, and open-minded humility

when your best friend criticizes psychological research for being artificial and having no relevance to behaviour in real life, in defense of psychologies use of laboratory experiments you say...

that psychologists intentionally study behavior in simplified life environments in orderto gain greater control over variables and to test general principles that help to explain many behaviors

alicia adams demonstrates the scientific attitude of skeptism by...

insisting that Dr. Phillip's theory of aggression be checked against observable evidence

auditory stimulation

first processed in the temporal lobes

sight

created in the occipial lobe

high reasoning

processed in the frontal lobe

parkinson's disease involves

the death of nerve cells that produce a vital neurotransmitter called dopamine

compared with right-handers, left-handers...

are more likely to experience headaches and more likely to suffer from asthma

andrew's injury was located in his central nervous system because

he damaged his spinal cord and consequently suffered paraysis of his legs in a TRAGIC diving accident

a phrenologist would suggest that

the shape of a person's skull indicates the extent to which that the individual is argumentative and aggresive

the thamalus

relays information from the eyes to the visual cortex

the hippocampus of the limbic system

plays an essential role in the formation of new memories

in resting state, the axon is polarized with

mostly postively charged ions outside and negatively charged ions inside

jessica likely injured her cerebellum because

she experienced difficulty keeping her balance after receiving a blow to the back of her head

the body's natural production of endorphins is likely...

to be increased by heroin use and decreased by acupuncture

neursurgeons severe the corpus callosum in human patients

to reduce epileptic seizures

if a neurosurgeon stimulated parts of your sensory cortex

you would experience a sense of being touched

research on left-handedness suggests that

genes and prenatal factors play a role in handedness

the reuptake of a neurotransmitter such as serotonin wou ld involve

the absorption of serotonin into an axon terminal

the reticular formation

is located in the brainstem

you are able to quickly pull your hand away from hot water before pain is felt because

movement of the hand is a reflex that involves intervention of the spinal cord only

epinephrine and norepinephrine

hormones that are released by the adrenal gland

the limbic system of a dog is...

the simplest brain mechanisms underlying emotion and memory

a slap on the back is more painful than a pat of the back because...

a slap on the back triggers faster and more intense and frequent neural impulses

math reasoning

is typically controlled by the left hemisphere

an EEG is...

an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the surface of the brain

jack became more uninhibited, irritable, and profane after a gunshot wound because of...

an injury to his frontal lobe

a MRI...

is a magnetic resonant image looking at how the atoms in your brain reorganize while being magnetized

miguel will have trouble speaking fluently

after a car accident where he damaged his BROCA'S AREA

Wundt is

considered the "father of psychology"

socrates

started the interest in teh study of the mind by saying "know thyself:"

titchner created the concept of

structuralism

james created the concept of

functionalism

plato (socrates student) believed in

the ideal world

aristotle

disagreed with plato and thought we were both the mind and body becoming the first duelist

descartes said:

Congito Ergo Sum: "i think therefore i am"

locke thought

people were born a blank slate; he called this Tabla Rasa

evolutionary psychology

the most relevant to understanding the behavioral similiarities among women raised in different cultures

A pair of adopted children or identical twins reared in the same home are most likely to have similar

religious beliefs

twin studies suggest that Alzheimer's disease is influenced by

heredity

cultural diversity best illustrates our

natural selection

your mother and your father each provide one pair of how many chromosomes

23

the hormone testosterone stimulates growth of the

the male sex organs (PEEEEENNNNIIIIIISSSS)

casual hit-and-run sex is most frequent among males with

traditional masculine attitudes

identical twins share a more similar prenatal environment if they share the same

placenta

parental influence h as far more effect on a child's accent and educational success than does

peer influence

when his mother offered to play leapfrog with him, Jorge protested, "I'm not going to play a girl's game!" Jorge's reaction is best explained in terms of

gender schema theory

the gender that is more likely to initiate sexual activity, express permissive attitudes regarding sexual activity, and comply with direct requests for casual sex is

male

human genetic diversity consists of the variations in the sequence of our

nucleotides

social learning theorists emphasize taht _______ and ________ play a crucial role in the gender-typing process

observation and imitation

the mathematical mean is affected most by

a few extreme scores

an experiment where neither the scientist nor the subjects know who the control group is is called a

double blind experiment

overconfidence is best described as

intellectual conceit

the method that would be most appropriate for investigating the relationship between the religious beliefs of americans and their attitudes towards abortion is

the survey

the process of replication is most likely to be facilitated by

operational definitions

the mode is least affected by

extreme scores

our tendency to notice and remember instances in which a premonition of an unlikely phone call is actually followed by the call most clearly contributes to an

illusory correlation

In order to determine the effects of a new drug on memory, one group of subjects is given a pill that contains the drug. A second group is given a sugar pill that does not contain the drug. This second group constitutes the

control group

Research particpants are randomly assigned to different conditions in an experiment in order

to reduce the likelihood of any preexisting differences between the groups of participants assigned to the different conditions

The type of research an investigator would use to manipulate one factor in order to observe its effect on some behavior or mental process is

experimentation

In order to compare the pace of life in different countries, Levine and Norenzayan measured the speed with which postal clerks completed a simple request. This best illustrates the use of a research method known as

naturalistic observation

A specification of how a researcher measures a research variable is known as an

operational definition

Statistical reasoning can help us to generalize correctly from a _______ to a ___________

sample to a population

When a difference between two groups is _________________, this means that the difference is not likely to be due to chance variation

statistically significant

In a group of five individuals, two report annual incomes of $10,000, and the other three report incomes of $14,000, $15,000, and $31,000, respectively.The mode of this group's distribution of annual incomes is

$10,000

Using several bags of M&Ms to ascertain which number is the most plentiful is

random sampling

Most accidents happen within a mile of your home is a

positive correlation

Eye witness accounts are often not accurate because of

misremembering

Psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzees in the jungle are using a research method known as

naturalistic observation

Psychological differences between the genders are far outweighed by

gender similarities

correlation does not cause

casualty

professor delano exemplifies a _______ when he predicts that because people are especially attracted to those who are good looking, handsome mean will be more successful than average looking mean in securing employment

hypothesis

the concept of control in an psychological research is important because...

without control over independent and dependent variables, researchers cannot describe,, predict, or explain behavior and results cannot be generalized from an sample to a population

hindsight bias can best be described as...

"i knew that" effect

illusory correlations often appear to be

positive correlations

according to erikson, a child entering adolesence can expect major developmental task demands to center around the need to____________

develope sense of one's self

a toddler who is learning to use the TOILET who sometimes feels bad when he/she messes up is at erikson's stage called ___________

autonomy versus shame and doubt

as children begin their elementary school years, they enter erikson's stage of _________

industry versus inferiority

a child who is just starting school, trying to learn good habits and to do well, is in erikson's stage of __________

industry versus inferiority

teachers, peers, and adults outside the home become more important in shpaing attitudes towards oneself in Erikson's stage of _________

industry versus inferiority

generativity refers to...

concern for welfare of others and society as a whole

according to Erikson, a major conflict in the first year of life is.....

trust vs mistrust

according to Erikson, failure to resolve the tasks of middle adulthood leads to....

a sense of stagnation of involving a concern for one's own needs and comforts only

initiative and independence are fostered by...

encouragement from parents when a child plans and carries out a task

if you are a young adult, you are interested in developing ___________

intimacy

the game of peek-a-boo works because infants are....

unaware that objects are permanent

attatchment is the strong bond a child forms with....

her/his primary caregiver

assimilation is incorporating:

objects, experiences, or information into existing schemas

conservation is the idea that:

properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in appearance

egocentrism is the inability of the preoperational child to:

take in another's point of view

children pass through two stages of morality:

the morality of constraint and the morality of cooperation

a successful alternative to drug treatment for hyperactivity is

behavior modification or behavior management

one recommended way for parents to handle occasional bed-wetting in children is to....

limit the amount of water they drink in the evening

a common mistake made by many concerned parents is like to be:

attempting to protect their children from all stress

Elkind calls a driver's license or a wedding ring a:

social marker

from the perspective of a lifespan psychologist, life stages are important because

they present a set of developmental tasks to be mastered

Lawrence Kohlberg is known for:

his research in the area of moral development

Kohlberg identified the three levels of moral development as:

the preconventional, conventional, and postconventional

at the conventional level of morality, a person:

conforms to the expectations of others or to socially accepted rules and values

at the postconventional level of morality, a person:

directs their behavior based on SELF-accepted moral principles

at the preconventional level of morality, a person:

determines moral choices by the direct consequences of actions

the first emotional reaction to impending death is usually:

denial

Elizabeth Kubler-Ross is known for her:

research in the area of DEATH and DYING

according to Kubler-Ross, the most common order of emotional reactions in preparing for death is:

denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

with aging there is a decline of:

fluid intelligence but not crystallized intelligence

The fastest growing age group in American society is

65 and older

Most of the elderly show signs of senility and mental decay is a ____ about aging

myth

Discrimination or prejudice on the basis of ager is called

ageism

In passive euthaniasia death is

allowed but not caused

Vocabulary and stored knowledge are examples of crystallized

intelligence

_________ is the cognitive structure utilized to make sense of the world

Schema

____________________ is the part of intelligence which involves the use, as opposed to the acquisition, of information

Fluid Intelligence

_________________________ is a style consisting of very few rules and allowing children to make most decisions and control their own behavior

Permissive Parenting

__________________________ is a style focused on excessive rules, rigid belief systems, and expecation of unquestioned obedience

Authoritarian Parenting

__________________________ is a style focused on setting reasonable rules and expectations while encouraging comunication and independence

Authoritative Parenting

________ is the period of growth and hormonal changes that lead to sexual maturity

puberty

A researcher presetns two lights of varying brightness to a subject who is asked to respond "same" or "different" by comparing their intensities. The researcher is seeking the

just noticeable difference

The amount of change necessary is given stimulus to produce a just noticeable difference is a constant proportion of the original stimulus. This defines

Weber's Law

________________________ has been used by advertising companies and politicians in an attempt to increase sales or change opinions

Subliminal perception

________________ refers to a decrease in sensory response that accompanies an unchanging stimulus

Sensory adpation

___________ involves the presentation of stimuli too rapidly or too weakly to be consciously recognized

Subliminal perception

A child has learned to avoid a furry, black cat. However, she still plays with her grandmother's short-haired tabby. Her response demonstrates

discrimination

In a study of punishment, shock is administered to hamster through a wire grid on the bottom of the cage. To the researcher's surprise, the hamster learns to roll on its back when shocked so that its fur insulates it from the shock. The hamster's response demonstrates

negative reinforcement

The process through which a response is taught by rewarding successive approximations to the final desired response is

shaping

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