The first newspaper editor to reach a truly massive audience without abandoning his basic integrity was ________________________.
In 1869, __________ introduced the elective system and took the lead in reforming higher education in the Gilded Age.
The educator __________________ insisted that education was the fundamental method of social progress.
Fredrick Jackson Turner
In his frontier thesis, _______________________ argued that the frontier gave Americans their unique character.
The author of novels such as Huckleberry Finn, whose acute reportorial eyes and ears caught the spirit of his age, was ____________________.
The effects of Darwinism in America were apparent in the philosophy of __________, which stated that all truths are constantly evolving and can be judged only by their concrete results.
Among the basic factors that affected whether people voted for Republicans or Democrats in the late nineteenth century were their ethnic backgrounds and ________.
Big-city political bosses and their machines emerged in the late nineteenth century because most ___________ knew little about democracy.
Ohio and New York
The group of "swing" states which gained unusual prominence in presidential elections because of the sectional nature of politics in the late nineteenth century included _________ and ______________.
The Gilded Age Republicans, who were led by Roscoe Conkling and who believed in the blatant pursuit of the spoils of office, were called the ____________.
James A. Garfield
In 1881 President ________ was assassinated by Charles Guiteau, an unbalanced office-seeker.
The Pendleton Act of 1883 was a triumph for those Americans who sought _________ reform.
James E. Blaine
One of the few politicians of his generation deeply interested in foreign affairs and an outstanding congressional leader who lost the election of 1884 because of the political scandal revealed by the "Mulligan letters" was _________________.
Throughout the _______________ farmers on the Plains experienced adequate rainfall and bountiful harvests.
Southern Black Farmers
The Populist strategy in the South was to lure _____________ away from the Democrats.
The election of 1892 seemed to set up a showdown in the election of 1896 on the issue of the ________________.
During 1894 and 1895, at the beginning of ____________ presidency, the economy floundered in one of the worst depressions in American history.
The small-town businessman who led an "army" of the unemployed on a march to Washington, D.C. in 1894 was ________________.
In early 1895 when the Treasury's gold reserves reached a desperately low point, a banking syndicate headed by ________________ underwrote a new bond issue and saved the government from bankruptcy.
William Jennings Bryan
The dramatic "Cross of Gold" speech won the 1896 Democratic presidential nomination for _____________________.
William Jennings Bryan
______________ discarded tradition in 1896 by traveling throughout the country giving hundreds of speeches.
In the election of 1896, McKinley's campaign manager who raised an enormous campaign fund from business was ____________________.
One of the roots of progressivism was the late-nineteenth century effort to ____________ and control big business.
A leading ________________ and crusading reformer of the early twentieth century was S.S. McClure.
Progressive-era journalists who investigated corruption and fraud in American business and politics were called _________________.
Samuel M. "Golden Rule" Jones, Tom L. Johnson, and Seth Low were all _____________.
The ________ plan was an urban reform, pioneered in Dayton, Ohio, whereby city affairs are administered on a nonpartisan basis by a professional.
The banner "progressive" state during the early years of the twentieth century was ________________.
Triangle Shirt Waist
Legislation protecting workers against on-the-job accidents was inspired by the disastrous ________________________ factory fire.
On the national level, the Progressive Era saw the completion of the struggle for women's ________________.
One of the suffragists' more successful justifications was the "purity" argument that women's ___________________ would clean up politics if they were given the vote.
One example of the progressive drive for political democracy was the _________________, which required the popular election of senators.
Theodore Roosevelt believed that the most effective means of dealing with big corporations was to _______________ rather than eliminate them.
Northern Securities Company
Roosevelt reacted to the creation of the __________________ by suing to have it dissolved under the Sherman Antitrust Act.
The first progressive president and the advocate of the "_______________" was Theodore Roosevelt.
The primary result of the 1906 _________________ was to make the Interstate Commerce Commission more powerful and active.
Upton Sinclair's novel _________________ exposed filthy conditions in Chicago slaughterhouses.
William Howard Taft
Theodore Roosevelt handpicked __________ to succeed him and carry out his policies.
In 1912 the breakup of the __________________ produced an independent third party, the Progressives, led by Theodore Roosevelt.
When it was passed in 1913, the ________________ gave the country a central banking system for the first time since Andrew Jackson.
As part of the New Freedom, the _________ Act prohibited both price discrimination, which encouraged monopolies, and interlocking directorates created to control competition.
When it came to non-whites, the _________ tended to be strongly prejudiced against them.
William. E. B. Du Bois
One of the most prominent black militants of the progressive era was ______________________.
The organization formed in 1909 by a group of liberal whites and blacks to eradicate racial discrimination was the _________________________.
During the Civil War, __________ established a protectorate over Mexico and installed Archduke Maximillian as emperor.
One reason for growing support for an overseas empire among Americans after the Civil War was the desire to carry out ___________________ to spread the virtues of the Anglo-Saxon race beyond North America.
Alfred Thayer Mahan argued in the 1890s that national security and prosperity rested on a powerful ___________________.
Queen Liliuokalani's "Hawaii for Hawaiians" movement led to an American led _____________ and the abolition of the monarchy.
President ____________________ reaction to the possibility of annexing Hawaii was to withdraw the treaty annexing Hawaii from the Senate, but he was unwilling to oust the American revolutionaries by force.
Americans had stronger reasons for extending their influence in Latin America rather than in the Pacific because they were accustomed to protecting American interests in Latin America under the _____________________.
In the 1890s a nasty dispute erupted between the United States and Great Britain over the boundary between _____________________ and British Guiana.
New York Journal and New York World
Before the Spanish-American War, both Hearst's________________ and Pulitzer's___________________________ tried to increase circulation by publishing tales of Spanish atrocities.
In February 1898, the American battleship the __________ mysteriously exploded in Havana harbor.
The leader of the Filipino nationalist forces during the 1890s was ______________________.
In the first battle of the Spanish-American War, Commodore ___________________ devastated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay.
The American politician who formed a volunteer unit, the "____________________," and participated in storming San Juan Hill was Theodore Roosevelt.
After the Spanish-American War, heated debates raged over the imperialism of annexing the ___________________________.
Expansionists who wished to annex the Philippines seemed most interested in establishing the Philippines as the gateway to ______________________.
Gorilla War Revolt
When America refused to withdraw its armed forces, the Filipinos launched a _________________________ against the American forces.
Guantanamo Bay Navy Base
Under the Platt Amendment, Cuba promised to grant ____________________ to America and to avoid treaties with any foreign power, which might compromise its independence.
Early in the twentieth century, the United States announced that it must "exercise ...an international police power" in the Western Hemisphere in the ________________________ to the Monroe Doctrine.
The "Open Door" policy attempted to preserve the chances for American business to enter the markets of ______________________.
When Panama revolted against Colombia, _______________________ ordered the cruiser Nashville to Panama to prevent Colombia from subduing the revolution.
President __________ called his policy of influencing other countries without actually controlling them "dollar diplomacy."
Wilson became deeply involved in Mexican politics in response to the reactionary general __________, who led the 1913 coup and had his former chief murdered.
In 1916, United States troops, commanded by General John J. Pershing, invaded __________ to capture "Pancho" Villa.
The Great War was precipitated by the ___________________ of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, by a Serbian nationalist.
At the outbreak of the Great War in 1914, the ______________ Powers included Great Britain, France, and Russia.
Freedom of The Seas
American attitudes towards the two sides in the Great War were most influenced by conflicts over ______________________.
In the presidential election of _______________, the leading issue was American policy toward the warring powers.
In February 1917, the U.S. learned of the __________ Telegram in which Germany offered a military alliance to Mexico if the U.S. entered the war on the Allied side.
War Industries Board
During the Great War, the government agency which had almost dictatorial powers to allocate scarce materials and fix prices was the _______________________.
This future American political leader commanded an artillery battalion in France during the Great War was ________________________.
Committee of Public Information
The head of the ____________________________________, which portrayed Germany as determined to dominate the world, was George Creel.
During the Great War, mere criticism of the government became cause for arrest and imprisonment under the __________ Act.
The Great War triggered a major movement of ____________________ to northern cities.
Black African Americans
Most ___________________________ reacted to the Great War with optimism that the walls of prejudice were beginning to crumble.
In their greatest engagement of the war, in September 1918, despite the heavy loss of 120,000 casualties, American troops won the Battle of __________________________.
President Wilson's plan for a lasting peace after the Great War was known as the __________________________.
Georges Clemenceau, David Lloyd George, and Vittorio Orlando were members of the so-called __________________ at the Paris Peace Conference.
The peace settlement reached at the Paris conference of 1919 was called the __________ Treaty.
League of Nations
Wilson believed that any weaknesses in the Versailles Treaty could be overcome by the ________________________.
The leader of the __________________ opposition in the Senate to Wilson's League of Nations was Henry Cabot Lodge.
When it appeared as if the necessary two-thirds of the Senators would not approve the ______________________________, without reservations, Wilson attempted to rally support for the Treaty by a nationwide speaking tour.
The basic reason why the ______________________ failed to ratify the Versailles Treaty was the refusal of both Woodrow Wilson and Henry Cabot Lodge to compromise.