the period before the civil war when reformers dedicated themselves to establishing free public schools, improving the treatment of the mentally ill, controlling/abolishing the consumption of alcohol, giving rights to women, and abolishing slavery.
Second Great Awakening
a reaction to the Enlightenment. Started religious revivals to reassure God in the lives of people
Charles G. Finney
urged people to abandon sin and lead good lives in dramatic sermons at religious revivals
The most famous Methodist travelling frontier preacher. He traveled around the country preaching to large groups. Established a wide variety of Baptists and Methodists.
Founder of the Millennialism/Seventh-Day Adventists religion; made people believe that Jesus would come back on 10/21/1844.
founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
Church of the Latter Day Saints/ Mormons
believed that the Native Americans had something to do with the lost tribes of Israel. Their practice of polygamy was highly frowned upon.
the charismatic successor to Joseph Smith, who led the Mormon people from Illinois to a new land near the Great Salt Lake in Utah, which was then part of Mexico.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
Two hundred acre community in Massachusetts founded in 1841 by a group of twenty transcendentalists, who prospered until the community collapsed in debt after a large building went down in a fire.
created the idea of Brook Farm
held women and men separate to keep sexual activity from happening. Did not survive because there were no successors.
founded in Iowa and did the same thing that the shakers did, but they survived because they could engage in sexual activity.
tried to create New Harmony that would fix the problems of inequity and alienation caused by the Industrial Revolution
This was a society that focusted on Utopian Socialism (Communism). It was started by Robert Owens but failed because everybody did not share a fair load of the work.
John Humphrey Noyes
created the Oneida community of "free-love"
idea that everyone was married to each other, justified free-love. Society survived because of their creation of good silverware
idea of Communism that everyone should share work and living arrangements; did not survive because of sheer individuality
George Caleb Bingham
painted pics of people in common settings
style of architecture throughout the US
American Temperance Society
An organization group in which reformers are trying to help the ever present drink problem.
first state to prohibit the sale of alcohol
spent her life helping to get the mentally ill better treatment and improved conditions
founded a school for the deaf
Samuel Gridley Howe
founded a school for the blind
improved schools so children would be prepared for the industrial society
William Holmes McGuffey
created elementary textbooks that became the standard of learning for all
Cult of Domesticity
idealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbands
Seneca Falls Convention
Kicked off the equal-rights-for-women campaign led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony (1848)