when a water-bearing porous layer of rock,sand, or gravel is trapped between upper and lower layers of less permeable substances
the region of a lake where plants are able to attach to the bottom and still reach above the surface
what is the spatial relationship between the distributions of water and people?
populations and water resources too often have an inverse relationship
the most cost effective solution for groundwater depletion and land level subsidence allowing
no more water to be withdrawn from an aquifer that is naturally recharged
which of the following agricultural practices is the least useful for consuming water?
"flood and furrow" irrigation
what is the direct cause of death for the aquatic animals during eutrophication?
a loss of dissolved oxygen in the water
a freshwater wetland located in a forested area where the rooted plants are able to grow above the waters surface throughout the entire wetland
what type of irrigation method wastes as little as 10% of water applied to the plants?
water that can be reused w/out purification for watering your yard and can help reduce overall water usage
most responsible for large amounts of death worldwide because of unsafe drinking water
a prediction, based on rates of extraction and new discovery of when a country's or global oil production will be at a maximum and then start to fall
carbon capture and carbon sequestrian is
used to trap carbon from coal burning power plants and prevent it from entering the atmosphere
how does the burning of coal contribute to acid rain?
burning coal releases sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides
what does the EROI tell us about the potential energy source
a high EROI ratio means an energy source is worth extracting based on the amount of energy needed to extract it
which of the following technologies has helped us to reduce the amount of emissions released by vehicles
coal can be converted into a cleaner burning gas by combining it w/ oxygen and steam at a high temp through what process
one way the oil industry is decreasing the environmental impacts of drilling is
nuclear fission energy
what conventional energy resources will eventually be exhausted, even if it is used carefully
process where fueled power plants produce electricity and heat that can be used by people
what does a moderator do in a nuclear fission reactor
slows down the neutrons so that they can react w/ the nucleus of a uranium atom
how does predation differ from parasitism?
parasites rarely kill their host while predators kill their prey
a predator controls the herbivore populations, which in turn maintains the plant and keeps balance
has a hot dry summer and fall, has few to no trees, and contains large grazing animals
desert, grassland, temperate deciduous forest, and tropical rainforest
which biomes have the lowest annual rainfall and which have the highest
surface strip mining and moutain-top removal
which type of mining creates the greatest environmental damage
diversifying oil imports
how has the u.s. dealt with the insecurity caused by foreign oil dependence
the us and other industrialized nations devote the greatest proportion of their oil to
produced as a by product that occurs when bacteria decompose organic material under anaerobic conditions
fossil fuels, alternative energy sources
developed countries are more dependent on __________ than on __________
the use of ____________ power grew very quickly in the 1970s and 1980s but our use of it has dramatically decreased
which type of energy is most commonly used in the homes of those living in the poorest nations
which renewable energy source produces the most pollution in its production of electricity
which energy has received the most research and development funding spent by the us gov't
which renewable energy source is least developed and has the shortest period of experimentation and research