The scientific study of all aspects of the human condition
points of information that can be observed, quantified, and described//these can be revisited by other people
: Interpreting archaeological data through the observation of analogous activities in existing societies
Principle of Uniformitarianism
idea that natural processes and phenomena have always been the way they are. Developed by Charles Lyell in middle of 19th century.
probabilistic sampling -
not sure where to start so random areas are sampled, this avoids any bias...?
purposeful sampling -
This is sampling built upon previous work so you know where to start (specific location)
empirical data (not facts), can be quantified. Science searches for patterns in space and time. Archaeologists argue that the way things are patterned is non random. Things are there for a reason.
work in a site (where some kind of human behavior occurred in the area) usually sectioned off with quadrants. Contains artifacts, ecofacts and features
collection of data about a region. The archaeologist will walk the area and collect this data while searching the area to get a general idea of the land
-Textual Evidence -
evidence from written records to answer specific questions about the people and culture and their interactions with others
a point of reference in 3D space from which we can measure to other data points; latitude and longitude (lat 0 degrees- equator/ long 0 degrees- Greenwich, Prime Meridian)
Portable objects whose natural form has been made or modified for human use and activity (ex: stone hammer or fired clay vessel)
Nonartifactual material remains that have cultural relevance. (ex: remnants of wild or domesticated animal and plant species)
something made by people that cannot be moved. Foundations, roads and tombs
Spacial clusters of artifacts, features, and/or ecofacts
Largest and most fexible spatial clusters of archaeological data Definition of a region allows archaeologists to investigate a wider range of ancient activities—beyond those restricted to a single site.
Cross-dating is a technique used to take advantage of consistencies in stratigraphy between parts of a site or different sites, and objects or strata with a known relative chronology.
project that led to the development of the atomic bomb during WW2, resulted with Radiocarbon, Willard Libby studied half-life
Things in first hand context
Things taken out of first hand context, material that has been moved from where it was first deposited as a result of subsequent human activity or natural phenomena
parsimonius explanation -
want data to go as far as it can, these are explanations that use a greater percentage of data
Catastrophism is the idea that many of Earth's crustal features (strata layers, erosion, polystrate fossils, etc) formed as a result of past cataclysmic activity. In other words, the Earth's surface has been scarred by catastrophic natural disasters.
Principle of Uniformitarianism-
Developed by Charles Lyell in middle of 19th century; idea that natural processes and phenomena have always been the way they are
Law of Association
Items/artifacts closer to each other physically must be close in time to each other
Principle of Superposition
Concept that strata layers represent time. Lower layers are from later times, higher layers are from earlier times. Stated by Boucher De Perthes.
Dates that are determined relative to other artifacts/stratas around the artifact etc. Dates are expressed relative to one another instead of in absolute terms.
Dates that can be rendered numerically (ex: 1200 AD). Stem from 2nd World War. Specific units of scientific measure- days, years, centuries, milennia- pinpoint a specific year or range of years
Changes in style are relative to time; the organization of artifacts by sequence according to changes over time (a relative age determination technique)
Also called artifact dating; early scientific method of relative dating developed by Petrie Flinders; the organization of artifacts by their frequency appearance ( a relative age determination technique), based on the idea that an artifact type first steadily grows in popularity and then steadily declines
horizontal bars representing percentages plotted on a vertical axis. Plotting several curves can allow the archaeologist to develop a relative chronology for an entire site or group of sites.
The study of strata, or layers. Specifically, stratigraphy refers to the application of the Law of Superposition to soil and geological strata containing archaeological materials in order to determine the relative ages of layers.`
Dating method developed by W. Libby and JR. Arnold. The "A" bomb in Manhattan started it. Can be used on anything organic. Radiometric technique that can go back 50,000 years.
(also relative to dendrochronology dating) turning radiocarbon or dendrochronology dates into calendar dates. Based on the fact that radiocarbon levels have been different throughout the years.
expressed in B.P. and have standard deviations associated with them
the time it takes a radioactive substance to decay into half of its original substance.
tree ring dating created by A.E. Douglass
- Usually used in cases involving molten lava and measuring the potassium-argon ratio. Half life is over one million years.
Started at the start of the century with photographs of the Roman town of Ostia taken from a balloon. Photography taken from above.
directly counts the number of C-14 atoms
used to date buried objects, samples artifacts/data of the last time they were exposed to sunlight
exact 3D location of something at a site
converting radio carbon dating into calendar dating, usually into B.C.
Cultural Resource Management (CRM)
When an archaeologist is given a site, and they must decide what questions to ask about the site.
a dating method, the magnetic polarization acquired by the minerals in a rock at the time it was formed, iron drifts towards the North magnetic pole
Cultural Formation Processes
actions of people that change stratification (ie. mining, building dams, etc)
Interpreting archaeological data through the observation of analogous activities in existing societies
a proposed explanation for an observable phenomenon, a specific testable statement [if/then statement]
provided ethnographic analogy for the ancient inhabitants of Carter Ranch Pueblo
the mandible that Louis Leakey discovered in the 1950s. He believed it to be primitive and when he took it back to show, he placed a datum point on a tree. When he went back to find the spot where he discovered the jaw, the tree that the datum point was on had been cut down.
Artifacts or other concrete things left behind by cultures of the past, all the material stuff you are involved with in your life
a societal system in which a married couple lives with the parents of the bride
Jefferson wanted to debunk the myth of the moundbuilders. Myth held that these moundbuilders were built in the Pre-European contact then they just disappeared without a trace. Native Americans were not capable of building them
Natural formation process
A process existing in or produced by nature (rather than by the intent of human beings), i.e. the action of natural forces eg: volcanic activity
is a principle that generally recommends selecting the competing hypothesis that makes the fewest new assumptions, when the hypotheses are equal in other respects. i.e.The simplest explanation is most likely the correct one.
looking at an excavation site from the side to see the layers. (like peeling back the frosting of a cake to see what the layers of cake are made of)
empirical data (data that can be observed, quantified, and described and revisited later) set out by a scientist. The test implications are used to affirm or refute a hypothesis
a broad body of thought based on empirical observations, a general idea that has some basis of observed data
A path along which one records and counts distance and occurrences between objects
step temples/pyramids built in the ancient Mesopotamian valley
a pueblo in Northeastern Arizona, a ruin, excavated by Longacre
In France, Jasques Boucher de Perthes interpreted his findings here
An Egyptian city that Akhenaten moved the capitol to, where peasants found letters
In Iran, French found the "Law Code of Hammurabi"
In Egypt. Where Sir Flinders Petrie lived in one of the tombs so that he could be close to his work.
In Egypt. Location of Hatshepsut's tomb, where the bodies of the 38 missing Pharaohs were found. Had the Jackal seal of the nine priest. Howard Carter recognized this when he first discovered King Tut's tomb. The mummy's where being unraveled and looted for jewels in their shrouds.
(Karnak and Luxor): City in Egypt near Valley of Kings
Valley of Kings
Burial place of Egypt's greatest pharaohs. Tutankhamen was buried here. Carter discovered king tut
ancient city in Sumer, Modern day Iraq, where the death pits of queen Puabi and king Abargi are buried with their servants and army
Thomas Jefferson visited the poeple of this tribe? (its his house)
Be able to relate to terms and places above:
excavated Carter Ranch, based on pottery concluded societies were matrilocal
Sir Flinders Petrie
camped in a tomb while he excavated it, Diopolis Parva, Egypt
excavated Ur, found the 2000 burials, including 16 royal burials as well as Queen Puabi's tomb. Payed lots of attention to small details.
Boucher de Perthes
worked in French city Abbeville and studied Abbevile Gravels. in lower stratas he argued that their were bones unlike other animal bones...extinct. He said people were there longer were there longer then 4014 BC (according to tracing back in the bible) -->giving Darwin's theory more evidence.
buried in a death pit under queen Puabi in Ur
SIr Leonard Woolley found her tomb when excavating Ur. Her burial was the most elaborate of 2000 burials including 16 royal burials. She was found surrounded by attendants and soldiers. Her burial was above King A-Bar-Gi. Suspected to be a mass suicide in her name.
British archaeologist who discovered tomb of Tutankhamun.
used the changing popularity of gravestone styles to illustrate frequency seriation
She was a Pharaoh whose funeral temple was found in Deir al-Bahri. It was not only a temple but it had an above ground section too.
Little known pharaoh whose tomb was discovered by Howard Carter. Tomb was really extravagant and had incredible amounts of riches
wealthy aristocrat who worked with Howard Carter on the discovery of Tutankhamen. Bit by mosquito and died shortly after, before Tutankhamen's tomb was fully explored.
developed radiocarbon dating
Astronomer who developed dendrochronology (tree ring dating)
James Ussher( Arch Bishop)
inferred that the date humans came to be (arrival of Adam and Eve) was 4004 B.C.
created catastrophism, tried to reconcile religion and science
Established provenience (branch of a tree)
a geologist who created the Law of Uniformitarianism (if it was true then, it's true now). Also worked to remove God from geological processes.
Conducted first archaeological excavation in the world on what he hypothesised was a burial mound for a battle, 1780. He was asked to fill out a questionnaire for Virgina b/c he was the Governor, so he went and saw the landscape of the natives. He theorized that the mounds had stuff in them so he excavated one on his plantation. He introduced stratigraphy and location context. The mound was not for battles because there were women and children, no traumatic injuries, and no one act of burial.