a "harmful dysfunction" in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maldaptive, and unjustifiable.
the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured. It assumes that these "mental" illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital.
a contemporary perspective which assumes that biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders.
the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
a psychological disorder that is usually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function socially
a psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
an anxiety disorder marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistant, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
an anxiety disorder charachterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
major depressive disoreder
a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, widely optimistic state
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania.
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
dissociative identity disorder
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distict and alternating personalities.
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
anitsocial personality disorder
a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrong doing, even toward friends and family members.