AP Psychology Test: Human Development

28 terms by clbxoxo14

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Nature vs. Nurture

is a person's development determined by heredity or by environment

Chromosomes

are made up of genes which are made up of DNA

Genotype

an individual's genetic makeup

Phenotype

how a given genotype is expressed

Dominant genes

expressed in phenotype whenever present in genotype

Recessive genes

expressed in phenotype only when paired with a similar recessive gene

Ovum or germinal

1st two weeks of conception, a mass of multiplying cells

Embryo

2-8th week, vital organs begin to form

Fetus

2 months to birth, completing development

Critical period

time when things must begin to development or will never develop, it exists during the embryo stage

Moro reflex

extension of arms when infant feels loss of support

Palmar reflex

hand grasping

Rooting reflex

turns toward object brushing cheek and attempts to suck

Proximodistal principle

center outward direction of motor development

Cephalocaudal principle

head to foot direction of motor development

Temperament

a child's characteristic mood and activity level

Easy infants

about 40% of infants are adaptable to new situations, predictable in their rhythmicity or schedule, positive in mood

Difficult infants

about 10% of infants are intense in their reactions, not very adaptable to new situations, slightly negative mood, irregular body rhythms

Slow-to-warm up infants

about 15% of infants initally withdraws when approached, but may later warm up

Average infants

about 35% of infants did not fit completely into any of the other categories

Goodness of fit

an environment where an infant's temperament matches the opportunities, expectations, and demands the infant encounters

Attachment

close emotional relationship between an infant and his or her caretakers

Secure attachments

parent serves as secure base from which to explore

Insecure attachment - anxious ambivalent

tend to cling to parent and be angry when parent returns after a separation

Insecure attachment - avoidant

seek little contact with parent

Authoritative parenting style

affectionate and loving, sets limits, engage in verbal give and take

Authoritarian parenting style

demand unquestioning obedience, use less affection

Permissive parenting style

make few demands, allow children to make own decisions, use inconsistent discipline

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set