Ethics

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Questions from the three exams given during the course.

____ is concerned with perspectives of right and proper conduct and involves an evaluation of actions on the basis of some broader cultural context or religious standard.

Morality

Robert runs into the office, unprepared and frustrated because he is late for his weekly appointment with his first client of the day. He is consistently late for his appointments and his behavior is:

unprofessional.

Elizabeth is a beginning practitioner and is counseling in a manner where she merely acts in compliance with the law and follows minimal ethical standards. She is at the first level of ethical functioning which is:

mandatory ethics.

James and Mary were going to counseling for marital problems and the counselor decided to meet each partner in an individual session before meeting them as a couple. James confided that he was HIV-positive and was not going to tell his spouse because she would know that he had been unfaithful. The counselor decided to break confidentially after attempts to encourage James to inform his wife of his condition. The counselor's action:

may be considered ethical, yet the practitioner could be in violation of a legal standard.

The basic purpose of professional code of ethics is to:

educate professionals about sound ethical conduct, provide a mechanism for professional accountability and serve as a catalyst for improving practice.

A formal complaint was filed against Harry for sexually harassing a female client. This is not the first complaint against him and he was previously warned that a major sanction would be imposed if he continued his unethical actions. The professional ethics committee to which he belongs recommended that Harry:

be expelled from the organization.

The counselor who asks the questions "Am I doing what is best for my client?" rather than "Is this situation unethical?" is functioning from the following ethical perspective?

Answer

virtue ethics

Richard is counseling a male Asian client and is encouraging him to go away to college even though he is expected to take care of his aging parents. Richard is violating the following basic moral principle in making ethical decisions:

nonmaleficence

Jan is an incest victim and is covered for six sessions by insurance. Her counselor is in private practice and knows that Jan needs more sessions. She decides to offer Jan her services pro bono. In making the ethical decision to ensure that her client has equal access to services, the counselor is using the basic moral principal of:

justice

In an attempt to convince her young client to practice safe sex, Valerie fabricated her own statistics and facts about the hazards of unprotected sex. In this instance, Valerie violated the principle of:

veracity.

The model of ethical decision making focuses primarily on the social aspects of decision making and redefines the process as being interactive rather than intrapsychic:

social constructionist model

Rhonda is a counselor at a drug and alcohol treatment center. She grew up in an alcoholic home and is not fully aware of the "unfinished business" she has with her parents. She is still angry and resentful with her parents for growing up in an alcoholic family system. It is most likely that Rhonda will:

obstruct the progress of her clients as they attempt to move towards recovery.

Ronald directs his clients toward solutions instead of encouraging them to seek alternatives for themselves. He is likely to have a strong need:

for approval.

Counselors who have unresolved personal conflicts:

need to recognize that their problems may interfere with their effectiveness and refrain from activities that would harm a client.

____ is the process whereby clients place past feelings or attitudes they had toward significant people in their lives onto their therapist.

Transference

When counselors become overly concerned with meeting their own needs or pushing their own personal agendas, their behavior becomes:

unethical.

Sexual or romantic feelings toward a client:

does not necessarily mean that the counselor cannot effectively work with the client.

Deutsch and Farber found surprisingly similar results in their surveys of therapists' perceptions of stressful client behavior. In both studies therapists reported that the following clients' behavior was most stressful for them:

suicidal statements

Martina has been working at a crisis intervention center for three years and is starting to have nightmares about her work. Despite having a strong work ethic, she dreads coming to work because she feels burdened by the lack of power she has in making decisions pertaining to the treatment of her clients. Martina is experiencing:

burnout

In regards to values in the counseling process, the authors contend that:

it is incumbent that counselors clarify their values and the ways in which they enter the therapeutic process.

Mary is seeking abortion counseling from a practitioner who has been actively involved in the pro-life movement. The therapist has extreme discomfort with Mary's values and doesn't think he could maintain objectivity. It would be best if he:

refers Mary to a therapist who shares the client's values.

____ refers to a personal inclination or desire for a relationship with the transcendent or God.

Spirituality

Ruth is counseling with a woman who describes an extremely unhappy marriage. Ruth suggests that she consider leaving her husband. The client has a deep spiritual conviction that marriage is for life and is not willing to consider divorce as an option. Ruth attempts to change her client's viewpoint as being unhealthy. In this case, Ruth is:

imposing her values on the client instead of exploring the client's reasons for staying in
the marriage.

Thomas has full-blown AIDS and has decided to end his life rather than continue to suffer. The counselor he is working with does not condone rational suicide. In this case, the counselor needs to:

refer him to a competent professional qualified to assist the client.

The term minority group has come to refer to:

any category of people who have been discriminated against or subjected to unequal treatment and oppression by society largely because of their group membership.

The culturally encapsulated counselor is characterized by:

defining reality according to one set of cultural assumptions.

A cross-cultural counselor who perceives reality exclusively through the filters of his or her own life experiences is said to be culturally:

encapsulated.

Frank is a Native American college student who is seeking information about his career choice from a male counselor. The counselor notices that he uses very little eye contact and needs to recognize that Frank:

is likely to view direct eye contact as a lack of respect.

The first step in the process of acquiring multicultural counseling skills in a training program should be that students:

take a self-exploratory class to help identity their cultural and ethnic blind spots.

Informed consent generally implies that the person:

has the capacity to consent and has freely, without undue influence expressed consent.

Written consent forms should NOT include:

a detailed description of what will occur in therapy and a guarantee that the client will resolve their issues.

Henry is seeking counseling through his managed care provider. Ethically, he needs to be informed that a diagnosis:

can become a permanent part of his file.

Most ethical codes specify that therapist should:

inform clients that a diagnosis can become a permanent part of their file and have ramifications in terms of cost of insurance, long-term insurability, and employment.

The social policy of de-institutionalization, as it applies to mental-health practices, involves the "least restrictive alternative" which requires that:

treatment be no more harsh, hazardous, or intrusive than necessary to achieve therapeutic aims and protect clients and others from physical harm.

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