first state to enact social welfare legislation
Abolition of Serfdom
first and most important of the Great Reforms in Russia
local government institution established by Great Reforms
pushed for a centralized democratic Italian republic
attack on the Catholic Church by Bismarck
charismatic leader of the Red Shirts who annexed the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
land claimed by Denmark on its southern border but taken by force by the German Federation led by Prussia
customs union controlled by Prussia that excluded Austria
main new crop in the United States that required large importations of slaves
Jewish leader that called for the creation of a homeland for European Jews
War between France and Prussia engineered by Bismarck and won by Prussia with help of German Confederation
Great Reforms in Russia
1) freeing the serfs, 2) introducing local government (zemstvo) 3) establishing independent courts 4) censorship relaxed 5) better treatment of Jews
Mexican War of 1848
War won by U.S. that resulted in gaining large tract of land from Texas to California
Russian minister of finance who improved the infrastructure, established high trade tariffs and put Russia on gold standard
German who felt that nations should support their economies. He inspired Witte of Russia
minister of Prussia that brought German Confederation together its lead. He opposed socialism.
French episode where Captain Dreyfus was falsely accused by the army and the church largely because he was a Jew. The case revived dislike of the Catholic Church by republicans.
Liberal Party of Great Britain
Eliminated House of Lords, increased taxes on the rich and passed a national health program.
German Social Democratic Party
Became dominant party in Germany by taking on a more patriotic tone and broadening their base.
multinational group of socialists organized by Karl Marx in 1860s- short lived
second multinational group of socialists organized by Marx in the 90s that called for an annual worker's strike on May 1st
socialist who preached change through elections rather than revolution
In 1864 after three months of fighting Denmark surrendered to Prussia and Austria. They were forced to give up two duchies, Prussia would administer Schleswig and Austria would administer Holstein.
War between Austrian and Prussian resulting in the unification of the northern german states along with Austria out of German affairs
Third stage in German unification. Bismark sought to unify all Germans by creating a common enemy in France. Germany defeated France easily and German unification upset the balance of power.
Pope Pius IX
Pope who became a staunch conservative, refusing to acknowledge Italian unification and condemning all forms of modernity; Published the "Syllabus of Errors" which rejected
Syllabus of Errors
A document by Pope Pius IX in which he denounced rationalism, socialism, religious liberty, and separation of the church and state.
Treaty of Villafranca
where the Austrians agreed to an armistice. Austria handed Lombardy over to France, who later passed it to Sardinia (Piedmont) but retained Venetia. The rulers of the central Italian duchies were restored. Piedmont acquiesced and CAVOUR resigned.
(r.1855-81)Emperor of Russia; advocated moderate reforms for Russia; emancipated the serfs; he was assassinated.
Conflict between the Russian and Ottoman Empires fought primarily in the Crimean Peninsula. To prevent Russian expansion, Britain and France sent troops to support the Ottomans.
The People's Budget
series of social reforms introduced by Great Britains Liberal government. It introducing many unprecedented taxes on the wealthy and radical social welfare programs to Britain's political life.
Tsar Alexander II; freeing the serfs, giving them land, make them pay taxes; zmestvos- county boards, changes in judicial and army systems
Ulster Revolt of Dec. 1913
Occured in Uster (Northern Ireland) over a "Home Rule Bill", being debated in Parliament, which would have given the Irish self-rule. Protestant Ulsterites raised 100,000 armed volunteers to resist Irish home rule.
Paris Commune of 1871
A leftist revolt against the national government after France was defeated by Prussia in 1871. Supporters of the Paris Commune were known as Communards and were crushed by the conservatives
Members and supporters of the short-lived 1871 Paris Commune formed in the wake of the Franco-Prussian War and France's defeat. The French Army killed almost 20,000 Communards in its in its attempt to retake Paris.
"Blood and Iron"
Was the speech that Otto Von Bismarck gave with the belief that a strong industry and military was needed in a country to have success. The blood represented the military while the iron represented the industry of Germany.
Bloody Sunday (1905)
A massacre on January 22, 1905 in St. Petersburg, Russia, where unarmed, peaceful demonstrators, led by Father Gapon, marching to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II were gunned down by the Imperial Guard. Led to the Russian Revolution
(1905), issued by Nich. II, attempted to quiet strikes, local revolts, promised freedom of speech and assembly, called the Duma into session
Russian national legislature
The lower house of the Parliament during the period of the second Reich and the Welmar Republic
William I of Prussia
Prussian king who became emperor of Germany after the Franco-Prussian War.
Grandson of Kaiser William I. He fired Bismarck, creates social welfare program that helped the poor, wanted to build oversee empire for Germany in Africa and Asia, and helped Germany become strongest military & industrial power
A NEW POLITICAL POWER OF AUSTRIA AND HUNGARY. THEY WERE SEPARATE STATES, EACH WITH ITS OWN CONSTITUTION.
Interests of Japan and Russia in Korea caused the conflict that led to Russo-Japanese war from 1904 to 1905. Japan defeated Russian troops and crushed its navy. By 1910, Japan had complete control of Korea and parts of Manchuria.