Sexual Reproduction

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Sexual Reproduction

reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete

Asexual Reproduction

process by which a single parent reproduces by itself

Mitosis

cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

Meiosis

(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms

Differentiation

(biology) the structural adaptation of some body part for a particular function

DNA

(biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix

RNA

(biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes

Transcription

(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA

Translation

(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm

Replication

(genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division

Amino Acid

organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group

Base Pairing Rules

The rules stating that cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine in DNA, and that adenine pairs with uracil in RNA.

Nucleotide

The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.

Phosphate

makes up the sides of the DNA ladder with deoxyribose

Sugar

an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals

Nitrogen Base

a DNA nucleotide containing nitrogen, a sugar molecule, and a phosphate group

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