which nervous system causes bronchodilation?
which nervous system causes pulmonary vasodilation?
which nervous system causes increased respiratory secretions?
tidal volume, respiratory rate
what two values do you multiply in order to get minute ventilation?
what factor does the minute ventilation equation of (Vt x RR) not take into consideration?
in the normal unsedated dog, dead space is what percent of their tidal volume?
RR x (Vt-Vd)
so what equation would you use to calculate minute ventilation taking dead space into account?
term for how soluble a gas is in the blood
CO2 is ____x more soluble than O2 in the blood, therefore it diffuses that much easier and is why patients with hypoxemia might still have a normal PaCO2 level
because CO2 diffuses so easily, equilibrium is quickly achieved and we can use the alveolar CO2 to assess what?
direct measurement of alveolar CO2 is difficult, so what can we non-invasively measure that is representative of alveolar CO2?
can we use alveolar O2 to assess arterial O2?
the gradient between alveolar and arterial O2 should normally be about how many mm Hg?
an increase in the gradient between alveolar and arterial O2 is a sign of what?
ideal V/Q is 1, but what is it for most species?
what does the V in V/Q stand for?
what does the Q in V/Q stand for?
if there is a shunt, will there be a V/Q ratio greater than or less than 1?
if there is an increase in alveolar dead space, will there be a V/Q ratio greater than or less than 1?
what percent of the total O2 in the blood is dissolved (PaO2) and not bound to hemoglobin?
will a decrease in hemoglobin's affinity for O2 cause a left or right shift in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve?
will increased CO2 cause a left or right shift in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve?
will an increased pH (basic) cause a left or right shift in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve?
blood gas analysis
what is the gold standard for evaluating ventilation and oxygenation?
low inspired O2 concentration, hypoventilation, V/Q mismatch, right to left anatomic shunt, diffusion impairment
5 causes of hypoxemia