"soul of italy";"young italy"; talker; journalist and politician
Mazzini's organization; mobilize european masses
Italian state run by Victor Emmanuel II; Italy's most prosperous region
Victor Emmanuel II
(ruled 1849-1878) He was of the House of Savoy and was the King of Piedmont-Sardinia. He was the King during the unification of Italy. He was more of a Noble power rather than leader. he appointed Cavour as prime minister and let him do most of the work. He "loved horses, hunting, and his sixteen-year-old mistress".
He was the Prime Minister of Pied-Mont Sardinia. He worked with tireless energy towards expanding his state. He eventually became Chancellor of Italy by means of Garibaldi unifying Italy.
A Frenchman by birth, he was considered a national hero through his efforts with the Red Short Army, a group of volunteers. After returning from exile in South America, he gathered and army of volunteers nicknamed the Red Shirts. Under his command, the Red Shirts was able to conquer and control most of Southern Italy including Naples. He is stopped just before marching on Rome by the army of Victor Emmanuel sent by Cavour.
During the 1860 revolt against Francis II (Bourbon Monarch of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies), Garibaldi came to Sicily accompanied with 1,000 armymen, aptly named because of their uniform. Their uniform enabled anyone to join the army and made them feel a part of it. They outfought the Neapolitan army, taking Palermo. Later they will take Naples.
Pope Pius IX
He was a Pope during the 19th century. He was the longest reigning pope in church history. He was the last to rule the Papal states; they became part of unified Italy under Cavour and Garibaldi.
(1797-1888) He looked beyond the small group of reactionary Prussian Junkers and bring some more moderate conservatives into his cabinet. Promised to rule constitutionally accepting the restraints to which Fredrick William IV had agreed in 1849. He became Emperor of Germany after the proclamation of the German Empire.
This is a term referring to a method of conducting politics. It says that a politican should do whatever is necessary, moral or not, to do what needs to be done. This system was used be those like Cavour and Bismarck.
Prime minister of Prussia from 1862-1890. He was appointed Prussian representative to the German Confederation in Frankfurt in 1851. His shrewd manipulation of domestic and international politics dominated relations among the European powers. He wanted to create a modern, bureaucratic state that would be strong and secular. He cleverly used political parties when it suited his purposes, as he doggedly held on to personal power. He had been named prime minister to confront the constitutional conflict over the army budget.
Blood and Iron
A speech given by Otto van Bismarck in 1862 about the unification of German territories. He stated questions of the days can only be solved through blood and iron. He announced afterwards that the government would operate without constitutional authorization, and use tax money to finance army reforms.
These were 2 states. Bismarck had his first war over these two states with the Danes. After the defeat of the Danes, Austria administered Holstein, and Prussia administered Schleswig. Ultimately, once Prussia beat out Austria and started to take control, Schleswig-Holstein became apart of Prussia.
Northern German Confed
Then was a federation of twenty- two independent German States formed by a constitution that controlled military and foreign policy. It was founded and headed by the Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck. It eventually became the foundations for the German Empire.
Also referred to as the Ems Telegram, it was a message from the Prussian king's vacation spot to Bismarck (in Berlin) stating the French ambassador's demands. It became Bismarck's released statement to the press and caused France to declare the Franco-Prussian War in July 1870. The name came from Bad Ems, a resort spa on the Lahn River, a new addition to the Prussian territory.
The Second Reich
Also known as the German empire. It was lead by Emperor William I and was a federal republic.
This was a new system of government implemented in 1867 which formed Austria- Hungary. In Austria, many Magyars lived and a heavy pwercent of the population was Hungarian and demanded power. Therefore Austria and Hungary joined to form one state. Franz Joseph and Count Gyula Andrassay (unimportant) were elected as prime ministers
Franz Josef I
He was eighteen when he came to power in 1848, had taken the second part of his name from his enlightened ancestor Joseph II in order to invoke the tradition of the House of Habsburg in those revolutionary times. In 1867, the Hungarian Parliament proclaimed him constitutional king of Hungary, as well as emperor of Austria.
One of the two largest national groups in Habsburg Empire along with Germans. They can be used interchangeably with Hungarians. Magyars had about 10.1 million people living the Austro-Hungarian Empire. They demanded political influence to commensurate the size of their territorial domains.
a peninsula reaching from Russia into the Black Sea. It was the site where the Crimean War took place. The war was with the Ottoman Empire, Britain, and France on one side, against Russia. The Sebastopol port of Crimea was a major fighting ground.
she was the founder of the Red Cross. In the Crimiean War, she worked diligently as a nurse to help those wounde. Not only did she found the Red Cross, but she turned nursing into a respectable, noble profession.
Moldavia and Wallachvia
Were the Ottoman Danubian principalities that Russia occupied in order to strengthen their position in the Balkans during the Crimean war. The two states that later combined to become Romania
They rejected the materialist doctrines of the west and disavowed many Russian traditions and thus repudiated the Salvophiles. Some viewed the Orthodox Church as an institution of oppression where some remained believers. Saw Russian forces as an untapped revolitionary force. Believed that the emancipation of serfs had aided their cuse by creating an independant peasantry. Believed in the power of literature. Because they had no moral code, they took whatever action seemed necessary to achieve their goals.
these were people who shared may same concepts as liberals in that they wanted what was best for the people and not the elite. Ordinary people in this case are not defined on class vut ideas and struggles. In Russia they were sometimes associated with revolutionary agrarian socialists.
the most famous anarchist of his or any other time. Anarchist rejected the very existence of the state, thereby qurreling bitterly with socialists, who wanted not to destroy the state but to take it over. Bakunin left behind his comfortable noble origins. He defined the "social question" as "primarily the overthrow of society". He believed that "destruction is a creative passion" and, like the nihilists, that the peasant masses had untapped revolutionary potential.
known as "Alexander the Liberator". He ruled from 1855-1881. He shocked his nobles by emancipating 22million serfs by a proclamation through the Orthodox Church in 1861. The tsar and some of his officials began to believe his country could not compete with the West if the serfs were not emancipated. In 1864 he decreed the establishment of district of village assemblies called zemstvos, who would elect delegates to assemblies.
He was the son and heir to Alexander II of Russia. He took the throne on 1881 after his father's assassination. Under Alexander, courts and law was put greatly into the hands of the military and police. Alexander had no want to liberalize Russia. He put restrictions on education and created the idea of "Russificaition". This was an effort to make Russia purely "Russian'.
Land and Freedom
the name of a revolutionary group comprised mostly of middle and upper class. The aim of the group was to spread socialism to rural areas. The members of it believed the peasantry to be the basis of the revolution and wanted all lands redistributed to the rural peasantry.
was entrusted by Napoleon to help rebuild the city of Paris. They planned the biggest urban renewal project since the rebuilding of London. They wanted to ease the expansion of commerce and industry by creating long, wide boulevards lined by apartment buildings.
Ferdinand de Lesseps, an engineer, raised enough money through the loans from France to finance the construction of this. It opened with suitable fanfare in 1869. Whet the chief beneficiary of the canal was not France but Britain, the world's leading trader, which had by far the most to gain by considerably reducing the journey to and from India and the rest of Asia.
This was Louis- Napoleon Bonaparte. He was the president of the French republic after the national assembly placed him there. He gave the people false hope because of his name. He made a coup d'etat and ascended to throne as monarch. He fought Russia in the Crimean war.
During the Prussian siege, monarchists from Versailles, the this set out to defend Paris. The leaders of the it were drawn from a variety of political persuasions: Jacobins, socialists inspired by the memory of the French Revolution, and moderate republicans who wanted Paris to become again the capital of an anticlerical republic. They organized Paris's defense and enacted a number of significant social reforms, such as Labor Exchange, the abolition of night baking, the establishment of nurseries for working mothers, right of workers.
served as Orleanist prime minister in the 1830s. He wanted Bismarck's help in facilitating the establishment of a very conservative republic at the war's (Franco-Prussian) conclusion. They signed an armistice, agreement to stop fighting. Thiers was elected to be chief executive of the provisional government.
The last German Emperor and King of Prussia.
Russian rural community
Russian revolutionary associated with the Nihilist movement and known for his single-minded pursuit of revolution by any means necessary, including political violence.