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Dwight Eisenhower

(1890-1969) a five-star general in the US Army and the 34th president of the US.

Richard Nixon

(1913-1994) the 37th President of the US after being the 26th Vice President under Eisenhower.

Oveta Culp Hobby

(1905-1995) was the first secretary of the US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, first commanding officer of the Women's Army Corps, chairman of the board of the Houston Post.

soil-bank program

a federal program that pain farmers to retire land from production for ten years.

Highway Act (1956)

Enacted in 1956 with original authorization of 25 billion dollars for the construction of 41,000 miles of the Interstate Highway System supposedly over a 20-year period.

John Foster Dulles

(1888-1956) served as the Secretary of State under Eisenhower; significant figure in the early cold war era, advocating an aggressive stance against communism throughout the world.

brinkmanship

the act of pushing a situation to the verge of war in order to threaten and encourage one's opponent to back down.

massive retaliation

a military doctrine and nuclear strategy in which a state commits itself to retaliate in much greater force in the event of an attack.

Third World

defined countries that remained non-aligned or not moving at all with either capitalism and NATO or communism and the soviet union.

covert action

a military, intelligence, or law enforcement operation that is carried clandestinely and, often, outside of official channels.

Geneva Conference

a conference to find a way to unify Korea and to discuss the possibility of restoring peace in Indochina.

Ho Chi Minh

(1890-1969) a Vietnamese Marxist revolutionary leader who was prime minister and president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), which he formed.

domino theory

a theory during the 1950's to 1980's which speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a...

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (1954)

(SEATO) an international organization for collective defense signed in 1954. It was primarily created to block further communist gains is Southeast Asia.

Suez Canal crisis (1956)

aka Tripartite Aggression, was fought by Britain, France, and Israel against Egypt. The attack was after the President of Egypt, Gamel Nasser, tried to nationalize the Suez Canal.

Eisenhower Doctrine

refers to a speech Eisenhower made in 1957 within a "special message to the Congress on the Situation in the Middle East." Under it, a country could request American economic assistance and/or aid from US military if it was being threatened by armed aggression from another state. (Singled out the Soviet threat).

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

an intergovernmental organization of twelve developing countries, with a principal goal of determining the best means for safeguarding the organization's interests, individually and collectively.

"spirit of Geneva"

produced the first Thaw in the cold war; called for a slowing down of the arms race vs. Soviet Union

Nikita Khrushchev

(1894-1971) led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War (after Stalin died).

peaceful coexistence

a theory developed an applied by the Soviet Union at various points of the cold war in the context of its ostensibly Marxist-Leninist foreign policy and was adopted by Soviet-influence "Communist states" that they could peacefully coexist with the capitalist bloc.

Hungarian revolt (1956)

a spontaneous nationwide revolt against the government of the People's Republic of Hungary and its Soviet-imposed policies.

Warsaw Pact

A mutual defense treaty subscribed to by eight communist states in Eastern Europe. The Soviet reaction to NATO.

Sputnik

the first Ear-orbiting artificial satellite launched by the Soviet Union in 1957.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

an Executive Branch agency of the US govn't, responsible for the nation's civilian space program and aeronautics and aerospace research. Established in 1958.

U-2 Incident

occurred during the Cold War in 1960 under Eisenhower/Khrushchev when a US U2 spy plane was shot down over Soviet Union airspace. The US at first denied the plane's purpose and mission, but then was forced to admit its role as a covert surveillance aircraft when the Soviet government produced its remains and surviving pilot.

Fidel Castro

a Cuban political leader and former communist revolutionary. A primary leader of the Cuban Revolution, Castro served as the Prime Minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976, then as the President of the Council of State of Cuba and the President of Council of Ministers of Cuba until his resignation from office in 2008.

Cuba

an island country in the Caribbean consisting of a mainland and several archipelagos.

military-industrial complex

a concept used to refer to policy and monetary relationships between legislators, nation armed forces, and the industrial sector that supports them.

civil rights

a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from unwarranted infringement by governments and private organizations, and ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the state without discrimination or repression.

Jackie Robinson

(1919-1972) the first black Major League Baseball player of the modern era, debuting with the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947.

NAACP

an African American civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909. Established to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination.

desegregation

the process of ending the separation of two groups, usually referring to race; most commonly in reference to the American Civil Rights Movement's goal.

Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

a landmark decision of the US Supreme Court that declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional. The decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896.

Earl Warren

(1891-1974) was the 14th chief justice of the US supreme court; was the chief justice for Brown v. Board of Edu.

Little Rock crisis

in which 9 African American students enrolled in ___ central high school were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school y Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus, and then attended after the intervention of Eisenhower.

Rosa Parks

(1913-2005) an African American civil rights activist who started the Montgomery Bus Boycott when she refused to give up her seat.

Montgomery Bus Boycott

a political and social protest campaign that started in 1955 which intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system.

Martin Luther King Jr.

(1929-1968) an American clergyman, activist, and prominent leader in the African American civil rights movement, best known for being an iconic figure in the advancement of civil rights in the US and around the world, using nonviolent methods.

Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960

Primarily a voting rights bill was the first ____ legislation enacted by Congress in the US since Reconstruction; a law that established federal inspection of local voter registration polls and introduced penalties for anyone who obstructed someone's attempt to register to vote or actually vote.

Civil Rights Commission

historically a bipartisan, independent commission of the US government charged with the responsibility for investigating, reporting on, and making recommendations concerning ____ issues that face the nation.

Southern Christian Leadership Conference

an American civil rights organization begun by MLK.

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

was one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights movement of the 1960s.

corporate America

an informal phrase describing the world of corporations within the US

David Riesman

(1909, 2002), a sociologist, attorney, and educator; went to Harvard Law; wrote The Lonely Crowd.

The Lonely Crowd

David Riesman; a sociological study of modern conformity

John Kenneth Galbraith

(1908-2006) a Canadian-American economist; a Keynesian and an institutionalist, a leading proponent of 20th century political liberalism. Wrote The Affluent Society.

The Affluent Society

John Kenneth Galbraith; sought to outline the manner in which the post-WWII America was becoming wealthy in the private sector but remained poor in the public sector.

Beatniks

a media stereotype of the 1950s and 60s that displayed the more superficial aspects of the Beat Generation literary movement of the 1950's; Jack Kerouac.

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