Functional Groups

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Functional Group

In organic molecules, the groups of atoms that participate in reactions

Hydroxyl Group

OH

Carbonyl Group

C=O

Carboxyl Group

COOH

Amine Group

NH2

Phosphate Group

PO4

Sulfhydryl Group

SH

Alcohols

Molecules that contain a hydroxyl group

Ethanol

C2H4OH

Methanol

CH3OH

Carbonyl Group Naming

-aldehyde or -keton

Acetone

C3H6O

Formaldehyde

CH2O

Carboxyl Group Naming

carboxylic acid/Organic Acids

Formic Acid

HCOOH

Lactic Acid

C3H6O3

Acetic Acid

CH3COOH

Citric Acid

C6H8O2

Amino Group

Molecules Act as a base in Solution

Phosphate Group

OPO3

Phosphate Group Naming

Organic Phosphates

Organic Phosphate Impact

Makes molecules high in energy

Isomers

same molecular formula: different structure

Structural Isomers

same molecular formula; different covalent arrangement

Geometric Isomers

Molecules with the same covalent partnerships but with different arrangements around a C=C double bond

Enantiomers

mirror images of molecules

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