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Industrial Revolution

the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.

Agrarian Revolution

A change in farming methods that allowed for a greater production of food. This revolution was fueled by the use of new farming technology such as the seed drill and improved fertilizers. The result of this revolution was a population explosion due to the higher availability of food. It was one of the causes of the Industrial Revolution.

Three Field System

a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted.

Open Field System

system of farming that divided the land to be cultivated by the peasants of a given village into several large fields, which were in turn cut up into long, narrow strips-fields open and not enclosed into small plots by fences or hedges-large field as community-same pattern of plowing, sowing, and harvesting

Enclosure Acts

Laws passed in from the 16th Century in England that allowed landowners to fence in the open fields and commons that surrounded many villages and use them for grazing sheep. This enclosure of the fields left peasants in those villages without land to cultivate, forcing them to work as wage labourers or as wool spinners and weavers.

Cotton

The principal product that drove the early Industrial Revolution, with its manufacturer advanced by such inventions as the Spinning Jenny and Flying Shuttle.

Luddite

one of the 19th century English workmen who destroyed labor-saving machinery that they thought would cause unemployment. Named after a legendary, but probably mythical, figure, Ned Ludd.

Workshop of the World

A term for Britain, which had great economic prosperity in the 19th century. More British workers were employed in factories than farms. Produced vast quantities of cotton and woolen textiles, shoes, cutlery, and tools for sale in domestic and foreign markets.

Peterloo Massacre

In 1819, during a public meeting in St. Peter's Fields (Manchester, England), calvary charged into the crowd, killing 11. The purpose of the meeting was to protest the Corn Laws and to call for political change.

Consumerism

Not so much an 'ideology' as a common way of behaving, in which competition, technology and demand drove down the prices of goods, and increased their accessibility and 'disposability'. A phenomenon that significantly developed in the Industrial Revolution.

Nouveau Riche

A term applied to the "New Rich" in Industrial England. Basically the Middle class who had gained wealth and a higher standard of education.

Rotten Borough

One of 56 rural towns or areas in England that sent members to Parliament despite having few or no voters. The most famous was Old Sarum, which had no residents at all. These were abolished with the Reform Act of 1832

Karl Marx

1818-1883. 19th century philosopher, political economist, sociologist, humanist, political theorist, and revolutionary. Often recognized as the father of communism. Analysis of history led to his belief that communism would replace capitalism as it replaced feudalism. Believed in a classless society. Wrote during English Industrial Revolution.

Corn Laws

Revised in 1815 these laws didn't allow for importing of cheap grain, this gave way to great anger towards the landed aristocracy who imposed them for their own good.

Swing Riots

A series of protests in England in the year 1830. They were a response to Enclosure and increased mechanisation of agriculture. Involved the burning of hayricks and threshing machines which were symbols of the newly wealthy farming class.

Malthusian Theory

pessimistic argument that population increase will always outpace increases in food production, causing cycles of war, famine, and disease, articulated by Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)

Urbanisation

A process whereby former agricultural workers migrated to cities. This, coupled with a massive population growth in England during the 19th Century, resulted in massive social and ecological problems.

Reform Act 1832

An act of British Parliament which increased suffrage and eliminated rotten boroughs. Designed to reduce the level of social unrest. Its limitations led to the development of the Chartist Movement.

Chartism

The movement of supporters of the People's Charter (drawn up in Britain in 1838), which sought to transform Britain into a democracy and demanded universal suffrage for men, vote by secret ballot, equal electoral districts, annual elections, and the elimination of property qualifications for and the payment of stipends to members of Parliament.

Chartists

Reformers who wanted changes like universal male suffrage; the secret ballot; and payment for members of Parliament, so that even workingmen could afford to enter politics. This group supported a document called the People's Charter.

People's Charter

1838. Demanded by the Chartists, it called for: 1) Universal adult male suffrage 2) The secret ballot 3) Abolition of Property requirements for members of Parliament 4) salaries for Parliament members 5) equal electoral districts 6)annual parliaments (the only one not eventually accomplished).

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