Ch 11: The Cardiovascular System

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electrocardiogram

a recording of the electrical activity of the heart

P wave

the period during which the atria are depolarizing

T wave

the period during which the ventricles are repolarizing

QRS wave

the period during which the ventricles are depolarizing, which proceeds their contraction

Bradycardia

an abnormally slow heartbeat, that is below 60 beats per minute

Tachycardia

an abnormally rapid heartbeat, over 100 beats per minute

heart block

damage to the AV node, totally or partially releasing the ventricles from the control of the sinoatrial (SA) node

Angina pectoris

Chest pain, resulting from ischemia of the myocardium

circle of Willis

an anastomosis that allows communication between the posterior an anteriior blood supplies of the brain

umbilical vein

the vessel carrying the oxygen and nutrient-rich blood to the fetus and placenta

ductus venosus

the shunt that allows most fetal blood to bypass the liver

anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery

two pairs of arteries, arinsing from the internal carotid artery

basilar artery

the posterior cerebral arteries, serving the brain, arise from here

ductus arteriosus

fetal shunt between the aorta and the pulmonary trunk that allows the lungs to be bypassed by the blood

foramen ovale

opening in the interatrial septum that shunts fetal blood from the right to the left atrium, thus bypassing the fetal lungs

pulse

expansion and recoil of an artery during heart activity

blood pressure

pressure exerted by the blood against the blood vessel walls

cardiac output, peripheral resistance

(2) Factors related to blood pressure

constriction of arteriosa

event primarily responsible for peripheral resistance

systolic blood pressure

Blood pressure during heart contraction

diastolic blood pressure

blood pressure during heart relaxation

over arteries

site where blood pressure determinations are normally made

pressure points

points at the body surface where the pulse may be felt

sounds of Karotkoff

sounds heard over a blood vessel when the vessel is partially compressed

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