5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- Contrast injection into the ureters can be achieved only by
- Which of the following may be used as landmark(s) for an AP projection of the hip?
- The four types of body habitus describe
- Which of the following positions is most likely to offer the best visualization of the pulmonary apices?
- Routine excretory urography usually includes a postmicturition radiograph of the bladder. This is done to demonstrate
- a AP axial lordotic
- b differences in visceral shape, position, tone, and motility. One body type is hypersthenic, the very large individual with short, wide heart and lungs; high transverse stomach and gallbladder; and peripheral colon. The sthenic individual is the average, athletic, most predominant type. The hyposthenic patient is somewhat thinner and a little more frail, with organs positioned somewhat lower. The asthenic type is smaller in the extreme, with a long thorax; a very long, almost pelvic stomach; and a low medial gallbladder. The colon is medial and redundant.
- c 1. tumor masses.
2. residual urine.
3. prostatic enlargement.
- d 1. Two-inch medial to the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)
2. Prominence of the greater trochanter
- e first catheterizing the bladder, locating the ureteral orifices, then injecting the contrast agent into the ureters. This procedure is called a retrograde (because contrast is being introduced against the normal direction of flow) pyelogram. A cystogram is an examination of the bladder. A cystourethrogram is an examination of the bladder and urethra.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- 1. RAO
- The patient is positioned so that the lumbar spine forms a 45° angle with the IR. The apophyseal joints (those closest to the IR) are well demonstrated in this position. The typical "scotty dog" image is depicted. The "ear" of the scotty is the superior articular process and the front foot is the inferior articular process. The scotty's eye is the pedicle; its "body" is the lamina, and its nose is the transverse process.
- the flexure disclosed is the one closer to the image receptor. Therefore, the LAO position will "open up" the splenic flexure; the RAO position will demonstrate the hepatic flexure. The AP oblique positions (RPO, LPO) demonstrate the side farther from the image receptor.
- two bony landmarks are used. The central ray is directed perpendicular to a point located 2 inches medial to the ASIS at the level of the greater trochanter. A point midway between the iliac crest and the pubic symphysis is too superior and medial to coincide with the hip articulation.
- the heart
5 True/False Questions
The AP oblique projection (medial rotation) of the elbow → superimposes the radial head and neck on the proximal ulna. It demonstrates the olecranon process within the olecranon fossa, and it projects the coronoid process free of superimposition. The radial head is projected free of superimposition in the AP oblique projection (lateral rotation) of the elbow.
Retrograde urography is not considered → a functional study of the urinary system; Retrograde urography involves introduction of contrast medium into the kidneys via catheter, thereby demonstrating their structure, but not their function
When the hand is pronated and the fingers are extended for a PA projection of the wrist, the wrist → 1. PA oblique
2. PA with ulnar flexion/deviation
3. PA with forearm elevated 20°
A PA projection of the left hand and wrist is most often obtained to evaluate → skeletal maturation. These images are compared to standard normal images for the age and sex of the child. Additional supplemental images may be requested
A parietoacanthial projection (Waters' position) of the skull with the mouth open may be taken to demonstrate → the single best projection to demonstrate the facial bones.