Characteristics of stereotypes
Ethnic groups, Gender, Groups
Ethic Groups (stereotypes)
Blacks are less industrious, intelligent, and patriotic
Men=task oriented, aggressive
1st group-feeling of disgust
2nd group-fear, apprehension
Accurate and inaccurate stereotypes
Accurate-can be measured against "reality"
Inaccurate-it is viewed as applying to every member of a group
Seeking the motives behind stereotyping
Prejudice and stereotyping often grow out of the same social & cognitive processes that affect all aspects of our lives, such as desires to understand our social environments & connect w/ other people
A perceived association btwn 2 characteristics that are not actually related
What happened when Hamilton and Gifford (1976) asked participants to read a series of sentences, each describing a desirable or undesirable behavior performed by a member of group A or B?
For both groups, more desirable behaviors were reported than undesirable. When participants were asked their impression of the groups, they liked B less
What does Pettigrew (1968) say about Jews and other "groups" in the middle ages?
They were money handlers & became known as "sharp and frugal". Chinese, Indonesia, Malaysia - They all fill the same "middleman" economic niche in their societies=role provides assumed personality characteristics
Generally accepted ways of thinking, feeling, behaving, that people in a group agree on and endorse as right and proper
What does Pettigrew (1958) say about those who adhere most closely to their cultures and social norms?
They also show the most prejudice
What happened when Crandall & Eshleman (2003) had students rate numerous groups in terms of how socially acceptable it would be to hold negative views of the groups and also rate their own personal views of the groups?
Answers were almost perfectly related-suggesting people's actual opinions of groups were driven by their perception of social world
Stangor et al (2001)
Learning about others' prejudiced opinions shapes perceptions of social norms=makes people more prejudice themselves
What does Ford (2000) say that racist or sexist jokes indicate?
That prejudiced attitudes toward the target group are socially acceptable, which tends to make those who hear the jokes more prejudice themselves
the world is just and people deserve what they get and get what they deserve. Leads people to blame victims for their misfortunes
What happened when Lerner & Simmons (1966) had students watch a woman apparently receive painful electric shock?
Instead of being sympathetic, most students concluded that she must've done something to deserve her suffering
What happened when Wittenbrink et all 2001 showed students xxxxx on a computer screen, followed by a word or letter string?
Some words were related to B&W stereotypes - pressed one of two keys to indicate if the letters spelled an english word. On some trials B or W was flashed very briefly before xxxxx. Participants responded to negative Black stereotypical words more quickly on trials when Black had been flashed
Based on some difficult to control aspect of people's performance, such as their response speed or accuracy, and don't rely on people's ability or willingness to report beliefs or feelings
What did Dovideo et al (2002) find about implicit measures of prejudice?
They were related to white students' subtle nonverbal friendliness toward a black confederate. In contrast, the students levels of overtly reported racial prejudice were related to the positivity of their verbal statements toward the black confederate
Impact of stereotypes on judgements and actions
People who must make quick decisions about others are more likely to rely on stereotypes than are those who can take their time
What happened when Bodenhausen (1990) used a questionare to measure whether participants were "morning" or "evening" types and then assigned them randomly to experimental sessions that met at 3 different times?
Their task was to read several items of evidence about a fictional character name Garcia/Garner who was accused of assault. When people were scheduled to talk at their worst times, more prone to rely on stereotypic expectations that latinos are aggressive and that the latino had committed the crime
What happened when Macrae et al (1994) had British students look at a photo of a skinhead and ask them to write about a day in this persons life?
Half were told to avoid using sterotypes, the other half weren't given any instructions. They were then told they were going into a room to meet the skinhead-"his" belongings were draped over a chair. Those who had suppressed the neg. skinhead stereotype, sat FURTHER away from him
What does Devine (1989) say about the negative content of early learned and deeply ingrained stereotypes?
Believes that virtually everyone is affected by them, but that some people try to overcome their consequences by correcting their judgements
What does Harber (1998) say about when well-intentioned people try to connect judgements that they suspect may have been affected by stereotypes?
They may even make overly positive judgements of stereotyped group members
-White college students read essays that were intentionally filled w errors, and gave feedback to the writers. When the writer was Black, feedback was more positive
What happened when Blair et al (2001) asked people to self generate counter-stereotypical mental images?
Used the stereotype that men are stronger than women, and instructed some participants to form a mental image of a strong woman. Task reduced the strength of the stereotype of women as weak, compared to participants who formed an irrelevant mental image
What happened when Neuberg & Fiske (1987) gave both stereotypic and inconsistent info about a person?
They tend to spend more time reading and thinking about the stereotypic info.
Sager & Schofield (1980)
Showed school children stick figures of children who were identified as Black or White, and described each stick childs' behavior
How can stereotypes affect our judgements according to Biernat & Manis (1994)?
By shifting our standard for judgments that involve a strong, subjective element (tall, smart, athletic) i.e. Joan's essay on eye make-up received a higher grade than same essay written by jon
The theory that certain types of direct contact between members of hostile groups will reduce stereotyping and prejudice
A narrower and more specific social group, such as housewife or feminist, that is included w/in a broad social group, like women.
What does Steele (1992) say about members of stereotyped groups being able to afford performing poorly?
Cannot afford to perform poorly, oven once, for fear that a failure will reinforce rather than change others' stereotypes
Weber & Crocker (1983)
When behaviors are performed by just a few individual group members, perceivers may create a subtype to insulate their general stereotype from change
What happened when Wilder (1984) had college students interact w/ a confederate posing from a rival college?
Students initially disliked most rivals, but interaction was positive. Students general beliefs about rival students became more positive ONLY if confederate acted and dressed like a "typical" rival college
What happened when Wright et al (1977) created conflict between experimentally created groups and then tried friendly contact to reduce it?
College students randomly assigned to 2 teams that participated in a series of problem solving competitions. One member from each group was selected to participate in a getting to know you task, then all members rated both groups. The indiv. members who built close relationships with opposite group partners, rated that group more positively
What happened when Pettigrew (1997) asked people whether they had any friends who were members of racial groups w/ negative stereotypes?
Those with such friendships were also less prejudiced against outgroup.
i.e. a french person who had an Algerian friend became less prejudice against Algerians and other groups as well
The process of seeing oneself as a member of a social group
Those aspects of the self concept that derive from an individuals knowledge and feelings about the group memberships he or she shares w/others
Social identity theory
Theory that peoples motivation to derive self esteem from their group memberships is one driving force between in-group bias
Direct reminders of membership
Honorary titles or pejorative labels bring group membership home in a hurry
-When group similarities are highlighted, (teams wear uniforms) membership becomes even more accessible
What happened when Marques et al (1988) had 2 groups of Belgian Univ students write descriptions of typical students of Belgian & N. African origin?
Both groups made requests-the responses of the students who wrote in the presence of an out of group member, the N. african experimenter, revealed greater id w/their Belgian in-group
What happened when McGuire et al (1979) asked grade school children to talk for 5 min about themselves &carefully coded these self descriptions?
Boys and girls from households where their gender was in the minority were more likely to mention gender than the children who were the majority
Cultural differences in the importance for group membership
People of independent cultures tend to see themselves as members of larger groups or categories
i.e. workers at a particular plant, graduates of a school etc.
What happened when Mackie (1986) had students listen to a discussion in which one group presented pro-environmental attitudes?
Some of the students were about to join the group voicing positive attitudes, and others knew they wouldn't be joining. The students who were going to join the group rated themselves as higher in environmental awareness, than the others. Their own opinions moved toward the group opinion
Cialidina et al (1976)
Investigated BIRG by counting "in group" clothing worn on school days following football games. At 7 univ, they found that students wore more school apparel of the team that won
What happened when Allen & Wilder (1979) assigned students to groups based on their artistic ability, then asked to guess the extent of which other in group members shared their own personal characteristics?
Students assumed that all members of the group would be very similar in art preferences
Perdue et al (1990)
The concept "we" seems to have positive connotations, as compared with the concept "they"
Dovidio & Gaertner (1993)
Students asked to read description of task to do w/others. Group 1-"something we all have to do our best on" Group 2-"something THEY have to do their best on" Those who were exposed to in-group pronouns had more positive expectations
Turner et al (1987)
As "I" becomes "we", the distinction between self-interest and group interest vanishes.
-Shared group membership has dramatic effects on the way we think about other members
Out group homogeneity effect
The tendency to see the out-group as relatively more homogenous and less diverse than the in-group
Asked students to read stories about men & women. When they later were asked to recall what they could, they remembered more personal details (occupation, etc.)
What happened when Platz&Hosch (1988) asked Texas store clerks to ID 3 male customers (confederates) who made earlier purchases? (1 Black, 1 Mexican, 1 Anglo Amer)
Clerks were also members of these groups. Clerks made more accurate ID's of the customer belonging to his/her own group
Minimal intergroup situation
A research situation where people are categorized, on an arbitrary or trivial basis, into groups that have no history, no conflicts of interest and no stereotypes
What happened when Billing & Tajfel (1973) assigned boys to group X or W based on a coin toss?
Each boy was given an opportunity to distribute rewards worth a small amount of $ to 2 other indiv. They warded more points to members of their in group than out group
Tajfel et al (1971)
Participants often favor the in group over the out group even when doing so costs the in-group in absolute terms
What happened when Fein & Spencer (1997) gave some participants false negative feedback on a supposed intelligence test, then read a description about a young actors' struggles w/ career in NYC?
If the description implied the actor was gay, participants who had been made to feel bad about themselves rated the actor in highly negative terms. Ratings were more positive if the actor was heterosexual
What do Lemyre & Smith (1985) say about lost self esteem in group assignments?
It's restored by the opportunity to discriminate in favor of the in-group. The difference between in-group & out-group is that the in-group is better
Effects of extreme threat
When prejudice turns from dislike to extreme hatred, it usually reflects the perception that what "they" stand for threatens everything that "we" stand for.
-In-group love and out-group hate become tied together b/c people see their in-group norms & standards as applying beyond their own group
Can begin w/ symptoms that appear relatively benign, such as a belief in the in-groups moral superiority
The fear of confirming others' negative stereotype of your group
What happened when Steel & Aronson (1995) gave Black & White students a difficult test and told some it was related to intellectual ability and others it was "just a lab exercise"?
When the test was said to tap intellectual ability and race was identified, Black students scored more poorly than White
What did Spencer (1994) find about women and men's math test performances?
Women did worse than men when tests were difficult and under standard instruction, but differences vanish if they are told that on "this test" research has found there is no gender differences in performance
What did Luhtanen & Crocker (1992) find about low personal self esteem?
Whites-low personal self esteem was the key factor that increased the risk of depression. Blacks-collective self esteem was more strongly related to depression
Kleck & Strenta (1980)
People often see another persons behavior as a response to a stigma even when the stigma could not possible have had any effect
Crocker et al (1991)
People sometimes inflate their evaluations of members of disliked out groups compared to their ratings of in group members who turn in the same performance
What happened when Heilman et al (1987) told men & women they were selected for a leadership role b/c they had scored well on a leadership test?
Another group learned they were selected b/c the experimenter "needed more" of the gender in leadership positions. Women showed less interest in leadership positions
The strategy of individual escape, either physical or psychological, from a stigmatized group
What happened when Ferdman (1989) had managers watch 2 different versions of a Hispanic interview?
1st-no mention of ethnicity
2nd-man mentioned his participation in many Hispanic organizations
Those who watched 2nd version evaluated him more positively
What did McKenna & Bargh (1998) find about members of the newsgroup?
The acceptance of their identity increased, replacing feelings of isolation & just being different
Strategy of introducing and emphasizing new dimensions of social comparison, in which a negatively regarded group can see itself as superior
The strategy of improving the overall societal situation of a stigmatized group
Directly seeking to change the conditions that disadvantage them