Chapter 3: Cells: The Living Units

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Chapter 3: Cells: The Living Units n

A plasma-membrane lipid possessing a sugar chain that functions in cell recognition

Glycolipid

The most abundant molecule found within the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane

Phospholipid

A plasma-membrane lipid that improves the rigidity of the plasma membrane and increases the membrane's impermeability to water

Cholesterol

The component of the plasma membrane that can act as a doorway for charged particles

Protein

The method by which large particles and macromolecules enter the cell by an infolding of the plasma membrane

Endocytosis

The movement of water across a selectively permeable plasma membrane from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration

Osmosis

The mechanism by which substances are moved from the cell cytoplasm to the outside of the cell by the fusion of a vesicle with plasma membrane

Exocytosis

The tendency of molecules to move along their concentration gradient from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration

Diffusion

These methods carry molecules, pump molecules, or form channels through which specific molecules pass across the plasma membrane

. Transport mechanisms

Endocytosis of large items, such as bacteria or cellular debris

Phagocytosis

Endocytosis of a tiny quantity of extracellular fluid containing solute molecules

Pinocytosis

Endocytosis that utilizes selective plasma membrane receptor proteins

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

By which method does Hormones such as insulin, low-density lipoproteins move into the cell?

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

By which method does Water movement across membrane move into the cell?

Osmosis

By which method does Movement of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other small uncharged molecules across membrane move into the cell?

Diffusion

By which method does Movement of large particles, bacteria, or cellular debris by endocytotic vesicle move into the cell?

Phagocytosis

By which method Molecules moving against the concentration gradient move into the cell?

Active transport mechanisms

Mitochondrion characteristics.

Cristae; matrix

Ribosome characteristics

Composed of two subunits; can be "free" in the cytosol or attached to rough ER

Rough endoplasmic characteristicsreticulum

. Produces protein transport vesicles

Golgi apparatus characteristics

Possesses a cis and trans side; composed of cisternae

Centrioles characteristics

Composed of microtubules arranged in nine groups of three

These thinnest members of the cytoskeleton are composed of strands of actin protein

Microfilaments

These cytoskeleton members are tough, insoluble protein fibers that possess a high tensile strength

Intermediate filaments

These hollow tubular members of the cytoskeleton are composed of spherical protein subunits called tubulin and can be quickly assembled and disassembled by the cell

Microtubules

Strands of DNA and associated histones in the nucleus of a non-dividing cell

Chromatin

Membrane that surrounds the nucleus of a cell

Nuclear envelope, or nuclear membrane

Tiny passageway that allows large molecules to freely pass in and out of the nucleus

Nuclear pore

Dark-staining body found in the nucleus of a cell that functions in producing ribosomes

Nucleolus

Jelly-like fluid found within the nucleus of a cell

Nucleoplasm

Dark-staining, rod-shaped structures composed of highly coiled chromatin, found in cells undergoing cell division

Chromosomes

Spherical protein molecules around which DNA wraps

Extended chromatin

Dark-staining regions in the nucleus of a non-dividing cell composed of tightly coiled strands of DNA

Condensed chromatin

A section of DNA and its eight associated histone proteins

Nucleosome

G1 interphase

The cell is metabolically active, synthesizing proteins, and growing rapidly

G2 interphase

Cell division enzymes are synthesized, and the centrioles complete replication

S interphase

DNA replicates itself

Metaphase

Chromosomes uncoil and revert to chromatin; nuclear membranes form around the sets of chromosomes

Prophase

Chromosomes uncoil and revert to chromatin; nuclear membranes form around the sets of chromosomes

Anaphase

Chromosomes uncoil and revert to chromatin; nuclear membranes form around the sets of chromosomes

Telophase

Identical sets of chromosomes are moved to opposite sides of the cell

Ribosomes

Protein synthesis

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Lipid synthesis

Lysosomes

Intracellular digestion

Centrioles

Organize the spindle during mitosis

Microtubules

Support the cell and give it shape; involved in cell movements

Mitochondrion

ATP

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Transport vesicles

Golgi apparatus

. Lysosomes and secretory vesicles

Centrioles

Cilia and flagella (microtubules)

Nucleolus

Ribosomes

Cytokinesis

. Division of the parent cell cytoplasm into two daughter cells

Mitosis

Separation of two identical sets of chromosomes to opposite sides of the parent cell

Interphase

Non-dividing stage involving rapid growth, DNA replication, and preparation for division

mRNA

Carries genetic instructions from nucleus to the site of protein synthesis

tRNA

Uses an anticodon to guide its attached amino acid to the complementary codon on the mRNA at the ribosome

rRNA

Combines in a complex with proteins to make the large and small subunits of a ribosome

microRNA

Can control, or inhibit, certain genes

Microvilli

Tiny fingerlike projections of the plasma membrane; increase surface area for absorption

Cilia

. Motile cellular extensions found in large numbers in some epithelial cells

Flagella

. Long, cellular projections that are tail-like and aid in propulsion

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