Chapter 9 Joints

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True

An articulation is any point at which two bones meet

False

Bony joints are the most common type of joints

False

Fibrous joints are joints at which two bones are united by hyaline cartilage

False

Symphyses are the most common type of fibrous joints

True

Synovial fluid is rich in albumin and hyaluronic acid, which give it a viscous texture similar to egg white

False

Bursae are structures associated with fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial joints.

True

The forearm acts as a third-class lever during flexion of the elbow.

False

The shoulder is the only multiaxial ball-and-socket joint in the human body.

False

Circumduction is limited to ball-and-socket

True

Hinge joints, such as the tibiofemoral joint, are monaxial.

True

The wrist can be hyperextended but the elbow cannot.

False

The coxal joint is a ball-and-socket joint where the head of the humerus articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula.

False

A meniscus is a type of bursa seen in the space between the femur and tibia

True

The elbow has both pivot and hinge joints.

True

The shoulder is stabilized mainly by the biceps brachii muscle on the anterior side of the arm.

elastic

These are the major categories of joints, except

synchondrosis; synovial

The joint between costal cartilage 1 and the sternum is a ____________, whereas the other costal cartilages are joined to the sternum by ____________ joints.

gomphosis

Unlike other joints, a ________________ does not join two bones to each other

these are fibrous joints

What do sutures, gomphoses, and syndesmoses have in common?

syndesmosis.

The radioulnar joint is a

synchondrosis.

The epiphysis and diaphysis of a long bone in a child are bound by a

the replacement of fibers with bone.

Some joints become synostoses by

symphysis

The joint between L2 and L3 is a

arthrology

The study of joint structure, function, and dysfunction is called

serrate sutures

Coronal, sagittal, and lambdoid are examples of

Synostoses

_______________________ are the least movable joints.

Synovial joints

____________________ are the most movable joints.

an interosseous membrane.

These are all anatomical components of a synovial joint, except

an articular cartilage

This image shows the structure of a simple synovial joint. What does "2" represent?

bursa

A(n) _________________ is a sac of fluid associated with a synovial joint

the atlanto-occipital joint

Which of these is a first-class lever?

C. Their output force is always greater than the input force.

Which of the following is true of joints that are first-class levers?

the length of the bone.

Range of motion of a joint is normally determined by the following factors except

The humeroscapular

_______________ joint is a multiaxial joint.

pivot joint.

The radioulnar joint is a

hinge

The proximal and middle phalanges form ________________ joints

condylar

37. The metacarpophalangeal joints at the base of the fingers are ________________ joints

extend

When you walk up the stairs your hip and knee joints _____________ to lift your body weight.

flexion

When you hold out your hands with the palms up, ______________ of your wrists will tip your palms toward you.

abduction

Raising an arm to one side of the body to stop a taxi is an example of ______________ of the shoulder.

elevation and depression

Normal chewing in humans involves ________________ of the mandible

adduction of the fingers.

Suppose you cup your hands to hold some water. This action would most likely involve

hyperextension of the neck.

A man raises his chin to shave his neck. This action is

plantar flexion

If you stand on tiptoes to reach something high, you are performing ______________ at the ankle.

circumducts

A baseball player winding up for the pitch ______________ the shoulder.

A. protract

Your shoulders _______________ when you reach to push a revolving door.

flexion and extension

A monoaxial joint like the elbow is capable of which one of the following movements?

flexion

raise your hand and place it on the shoulder of a person standing in front of you involves _______________ of the shoulder

hyperextension of the wrist.

Suppose you are looking at the back of your hand and you turn your fingers upward to admire a new ring. A motion employed in this would be

Inversion; eversion

______________ tips the soles medially, like facing each other, and _____________ tips the soles laterally, away from each other.

synovial

The temporomandibular joint is a(n) _______________ joint.

A. mandible and temporal bone.

The jaw joint is the articulation of

inferiorly

The rotator cuff tendons enclose the shoulder joint on all sides except _______________, which explains in part the nature of most shoulder dislocations.

the radioulnar ligament.

These are all structures found in the shoulder joint except

subpatellar

The ______________________ bursa does not belong to the glenohumeral joint.

elbow

Radial (lateral) and ulnar (medial) collateral ligaments restrict side-to-side movements of the ______________ joint.

distal radioulnar joint

The ________________ is not found in the elbow.

coxal joint

Which is the most stable joint?

the knee

Which is the largest and most complex diarthrosis in the body?

acetabular labrum

The ________________ deepens the socket of the hip joint and helps stabilize the joint.

posterior tibiofibular ligament

The _________________ does not belong to the tibiofemoral joint.

the fibular (lateral) collateral ligament

This image shows an anterior view of the right tibiofemoral joint. What does "5" represent?

the medial meniscus

This image shows an anterior view of the right tibiofemoral joint. What does "3" represent?

the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)

What structure in the knee prevents hyperextension?

the tibia, fibula, and talus.

The talocrural joint is a meeting of

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