6 Written questions
6 Multiple choice questions
- Many people have trouble remembering which is the independent variable and which is the dependent variable. An easy way to remember is to insert the names of the two variables you are using in this sentence in they way that makes the most sense. Then you can figure out which is the independent variable and which is the dependent variable: (Independent variable) causes a change in (Dependent Variable) and it isn't possible that (Dependent Variable) could cause a change in (Independent Variable).
- Other variables may affect the relationship between an independent and dependent variable. A variable that directly or indirectly effects the dependent variable because of its relationship with the independent variable is what is called an mediating or intervening variable. In other words this variable serves to mediate or act as a "go between" in the relationship between the independent and dependent variable. A causal chain is created where the independent variable has an effect on the mediating variable which in turn effects the dependent variable.
- or example, a mediating variable explains the actual relationship between the following variables. Most people will agree that older drivers (up to a certain point), are better drivers. Thus: aging \to better driving But what is missing from this relationship is a mediating variable that is actually causing the improvement in driving: wisdom. The mediated relationship would look like the following: aging \to increased wisdom \to better driving (And yes, it could also be argued that instead of increased wisdom it is increased responsibility for one's actions, but separating those two is difficult to do.) Mediating variables are often contrasted with moderating variables, which pinpoint the conditions under which an independent variable exerts its effects on a dependent variable. A moderating relationship can be thought of as an interaction. It occurs when the relationship between variables A and B depends on the level of C. In fact, the best explanation of the above relationship is a combination of mediating and moderating variables. Increased age does often lead to increased wisdom, but it also requires the maintenance of good reflexes. Thus, there is an interaction between age and reflexes that serves as a moderating variable. Increasing age only improves driving until reflexes begin to suffer, at which point the moderator variable (age x reflexes) results in worse driving. Or: aging \to increased wisdom \to better driving \to worse driving (until) aging \to decline in reflexes
- a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
- (Time Spent Studying) causes a change in (Test Score) and it isn't possible that (Test Score) could cause a change in (Time Spent Studying). We see that "Time Spent Studying" must be the independent variable and "Test Score" must be the dependent variable because the sentence doesn't make sense the other way around.
- It is something that depends on other factors. For example, a test score could be a dependent variable because it could change depending on several factors such as how much you studied, how much sleep you got the night before you took the test, or even how hungry you were when you took it. Usually when you are looking for a relationship between two things you are trying to find out what makes the dependent variable change the way it does.
6 True/False questions
Relationship Variables → A moderating variable is one that has an effect on the dependent variable, but is not related to or affected by the independent variable. Often times, as your text illustrates a moderating variable may be a categorical variable in which only one of the categories has an effect on the dependent variable such as gender, marital status or socioeconomic status. In other words the moderating variable effects the dependent variable, but it's effect is not influenced or Independent Variable Mediating Variable Dependent Variable caused by the independent variable.
What's an independent variable? → An independent variable is exactly what it sounds like. It is a variable that stands alone and isn't changed by the other variables you are trying to measure. For example, someone's age might be an independent variable. Other factors (such as what they eat, how much they go to school, how much television they watch) aren't going to change a person's age. In fact, when you are looking for some kind of relationship between variables you are trying to see if the independent variable causes some kind of change in the other variables, or dependent variables
Quantitative Inquiry → This what you need:
control variables → A moderating variable is one that has an effect on the dependent variable, but is not related to or affected by the independent variable. Often times, as your text illustrates a moderating variable may be a categorical variable in which only one of the categories has an effect on the dependent variable such as gender, marital status or socioeconomic status. In other words the moderating variable effects the dependent variable, but it's effect is not influenced or Independent Variable Mediating Variable Dependent Variable caused by the independent variable.
Moderating Variables → are moderating variables that we seek to control by holding them constant in our research design
Independent variable → changes as a result of independent variable