6 Written questions
6 Multiple choice questions
- characteristics; qualities of a person or thing
- or example, a mediating variable explains the actual relationship between the following variables. Most people will agree that older drivers (up to a certain point), are better drivers. Thus: aging \to better driving But what is missing from this relationship is a mediating variable that is actually causing the improvement in driving: wisdom. The mediated relationship would look like the following: aging \to increased wisdom \to better driving (And yes, it could also be argued that instead of increased wisdom it is increased responsibility for one's actions, but separating those two is difficult to do.) Mediating variables are often contrasted with moderating variables, which pinpoint the conditions under which an independent variable exerts its effects on a dependent variable. A moderating relationship can be thought of as an interaction. It occurs when the relationship between variables A and B depends on the level of C. In fact, the best explanation of the above relationship is a combination of mediating and moderating variables. Increased age does often lead to increased wisdom, but it also requires the maintenance of good reflexes. Thus, there is an interaction between age and reflexes that serves as a moderating variable. Increasing age only improves driving until reflexes begin to suffer, at which point the moderator variable (age x reflexes) results in worse driving. Or: aging \to increased wisdom \to better driving \to worse driving (until) aging \to decline in reflexes
- Other variables may affect the relationship between an independent and dependent variable. A variable that directly or indirectly effects the dependent variable because of its relationship with the independent variable is what is called an mediating or intervening variable. In other words this variable serves to mediate or act as a "go between" in the relationship between the independent and dependent variable. A causal chain is created where the independent variable has an effect on the mediating variable which in turn effects the dependent variable.
- It is something that depends on other factors. For example, a test score could be a dependent variable because it could change depending on several factors such as how much you studied, how much sleep you got the night before you took the test, or even how hungry you were when you took it. Usually when you are looking for a relationship between two things you are trying to find out what makes the dependent variable change the way it does.
- concept being investigated that is characterized by different attributes-male/female-class
- changes as a result of independent variable
6 True/False questions
hypothesis-should be clear-specific-value-free -testable and have more than one outcome. → a testable prediction used to see how something works or to solve a problem
Descriptive in Quantitative Methods → refers to surface attributes that can be easily quantified, objectivity-precision, generalizing
Exploratory in Quantitative Methods → start as a hypothesis about something, explains a phenomenon and then test the hypothesis
Relationship Variables → changes together in predictable consistent fashion
control variables → are moderating variables that we seek to control by holding them constant in our research design
Example → (Time Spent Studying) causes a change in (Test Score) and it isn't possible that (Test Score) could cause a change in (Time Spent Studying). We see that "Time Spent Studying" must be the independent variable and "Test Score" must be the dependent variable because the sentence doesn't make sense the other way around.