Biological Anthropology

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Haldane

a rate unit: change in standard deviations per generation population geneticist; importance of mutations to add variation in population

Tiktaalik

missing link at the time - problem with evolution fossil is incomplete and we make assumptions; fish like features and land features so answered question on how animals when from water to land

Tetrapod

there was a gap between fish and terapods - small ground living dinosaur thought to be related to birds

Carolus Linnaeus

Fixity of Species - god created life on earth and it can never change

Lamarck

change in enviro = change in needs = change in behavior = change in heritage trait = "Inheritance through acquired Characteristics"

Malthus

survival of the fittest; populations have the potential to increase geometrically in size but are held at a stable size because of limited resources

Darwin

Natural selection depend on? reproductive competition; variation in fitness; heritability but be there; evolution occurs HMS Beagle's voyage - voyage - Darwin 5 year

Galapogos Islands

Darwin did his research on the finch - much variation, Island where Charles Darwin studied various tortoises and species of birds

Types of Selection

Directional - go one way
Selectional - working for the middle
Oscillating - con go from one extreme to another

Mechanism Of natural selection

the differential reproduction of individuals based on the heritage differences between them Individuals vary in most inherited characteristics (traits not expressed the same way) - increase of individuals who express traits and decrease in individuals who have less beneficial expression of trait

Gregor Mendel

experiments with pea - laid down the principles of heredity; hybrids see how traits are expressed; genes have large and discrete trait

Mendelian traits

influenced by one gene; exkpression not influenced by enviro and are discrete

Genes

sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait

Alleles

different forms of genes

Dominant traits

traits people can see that you have; a dominant gene overpowers a recessive gene

Recessive traits

traits you may have, but people cannot see because they are not expressed

Principle of segregation

genes occupied in pairs bc chromosomes which carry heritability occur in pairs and are separated in reproduction = offspring gets gamete (23 from each parent) -

Mitosis

somatic cells divide and produce two identical daughter cells (46 chromo)

Meiosis

sex cells formed; two divisons to produce 4 daughter cells (23chromo

Genotype

genes carried by the individual; TT Tt and tt, genetic makeup of an organism

Phenotype

observable characteristics of an organism; Tall Tall and short

The Modern Synthesis

production and redistribution of variability and NS acting on variability

Locus

the position where the gene is found in a on the chromosome

Polygenic inheritance

continuous traits; influenced at two or more loci; influenced by enviromment such as nutrition

Pleiotropy

occurs when the action of a single gene influences several seemingly unrelated phenotypic effects; one gene affects several of traits

Mitochondrial inheritance

convert energy into a form that can be used by the cell; get it from your mother which contains several or ring shaped DNA chromosome; variation caused by

Effect of environment On phenotypes

- enviro affects which phenotypes will be expressed depending on how good or bad enviro is ...low nutrition = no or poor expression of phynotype

Evolution

change in allege frequency from one generation to another

Crick and Watson

DNA researchers; discovered model of DNA structure

Nucleotides

Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of 4 DNA bases

DNA

double-stranded molecule that contains the genetic code
code is continuous (atcg)

Mutation

change in genetic makeup; to be significant it has to occur in sex cell to be passed on and must give advantage or superiority to organism to pass on

Gene flow

exchange of genes in a population

Genetic drift

small populations are affected; change in allels bc of low variation; random factor in evolution; small pop = alleles rare = lost = low variation = allele frequencys not passed down therefore disappear

Founder effect

An allele that was rare in the founders' parent population but
is carried by even one of founders can become common. paticular kind of genetic drift; small population and mate within; low variation = all ppl are decended from the founders in effect all the genes in the expanding group will

Bottlenecking

loss of genetic diversity; loss of alleles in gene pool; effect can be determianl to species survival because cant mate bc too closely related; cheetahs

Recombination

In sexually reproducing species both parents
contribute genes to offspring. The genetic information is reshuffled every generation. Recombination doesn't change allele frequencies. It does produce different combinations of genes that on which natural selection may be able to act.

Sickle Cell And malaria

Abnormal form of hemoglobin resulting from a point mutation Unsuitable living environment for Plasmodium
Protection from Malaria

Classification

Speciation explains why we can classify
organisms hierarchically

Vertebrates

...

Homologies

Similarities based on descent from a
common ancestor

Analogies

Similarities based on common function,
with no assumed common evolutionary
descent.

Homoplasy

The separate evolutionary development
of similar characteristics in different
groups of organisms

Evolutionary Systematics

Ancestors & descendants are traced in
time by analysis of homologous
characters.

Cladistics

Attempts to make rigorous evolutionary interpretations based solely on analysis of certain types of homologous characters

Ancestral characteristics

Characters inherited by a group of organisms from a remote ancestor and thus not diagnostic of groups (lineages) that diverged after the character first appeared.

derived characteristics

Characters that are modified from the
ancestral condition and thus are
diagnostic of particular evolutionary
lineages.

Clade

lineages that share a common ancestor...all share one common ancestor, & are monophyletic

Monophyletic

ALL descendants came from one common ancestor

Polyphyletic

pertaining to a grouping of species derived from two or more different ancestral forms

Phylogenetic Tree

branching diagram, suggesting evolutionary relationships, that classifies species into groups within groups

Cladogram

Diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms

Biological Species Concept

Individuals capable of interbreeding, but
reproductively isolated from other such groupsa species concept defining a species as a population or group thereof whose members potentially interbreed and produce fertile offspring

Speciation

the process by which a new species evolves from a prior species.Speciation is the most basic process in macroevolution.

Ecological Niche

(ecology) the status of an organism within its environment and community (affecting its survival as a species)

Microevolution

evolution resulting from small specific genetic changes that can lead to a new subspecies

Macroevolution

evolution on a large scale extending over geologic era and resulting in the formation of new taxonomic groups

Ecological species concept

The concept that a species is a group of
organisms exploiting a single niche.

Phylogenetic species concept:

Splitting many populations into separate species based on an
identifiable parental pattern of ancestry.

Allopatric Speciation

Living in different areas. Important factor in the divergence of closely related species from each other and from their shared ancestral species because it leads to reproductive isolation.

Parapatric Speciation

Free exchange of genes between two populations of organisms living in directly adjacent but environmentally different habitats. Hybrid zones develop

Intraspecific

Individual, age, & sex differences seen within every biological species

Interspecific

Differences between reproductively isolated groups.

Paleospecies

species that is now extinct, species defined from fossil evidence, often covering a lifetime span

Sexual Dimorphism

.males and females of the same species having different external characteristics and features

"Lumpers"

assume speciation was less common and see much variation as being intraspecific.

"Splitters"

are researchers who claim speciation occurred frequently during hominid evolution.

Mammalian traits

Monotremes: Primitive, egg laying mammals
Marsupials: infants complete development in an eternal pouch Placental: Longer gestation allows the central nervous system to develop more completely

Genus

A genus is a group of species composed of members more closely related to each other than to species from any other genus.

Heterodont

having teeth in different shapes and functions. Having different kinds of teeth; characteristic of mammals, whose teeth consist of incisors, canines, premolars, and molars.

Endothermic

describes a process in which heat is absorbed from the environment

Homeothermic

of birds and mammals, warm blooded animals; maintain constant internal temperature

Adaptive Radiation

a life form rapidly takes advantage of the many newly available ecological niche

George De Buffon

argued that the earth was older than the bible said and also that the environment is an agent of change

Principle Of independent assortment

distribution of a pair of gametes but are not influenced by the paring of others

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