Physics II Chapter 35&36

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1920 and 1930's

radiologic techs have weekley blood work to check thier levels of radiation;no film badges back then

death

the most devastating of all the responses to radiation;there have been no documeneted cases other than early pioneers(they all died of late effects)

acute radiation

induced human lethality is only of ACADEMIC INTEREST in diagnostic radiation;diagnostic beams are not intense enough or large enough to cause death

Chernobyl

an incident that happened in 1986 where 30 people died from acute radiation syndrome;also alot of late effects

acute radiation syndrome

the sequence of events following a high-level radiation exposure leading to death within days or weeks

prodromal period

doses above 100cGy to the whole body with symptoms in mins or hours; symptoms are Nausea,Vomitting;Diarrhea;Decrease in white blood cells

latent period

the period of well being after the radiation sickness;can last for hours or less;thought to be a recovery period but can be misleading as more may follow

hematologic syndrome (least worst)

doses between 200-1000 cGy; appear within a few HOURS and last for a few DAYS

hematologic syndrome symptoms

symptoms are vomiiting,diarrhea,malaise,lethargy and fever; reduced wbcs,rbcs and platelets

hematologic syndrome lasting time

the latent period usually last a few weeks;2-4 week recovery and up to 6 months for full recovery

gastrointestinal syndrome

doses from 1000-5000cGy;occur within hours

gastrointestinal syndrome symptoms

symptoms are same as hematologic plus electrolyte imbalance,shock and fatique

gastrointestinal syndrome lasting time

latent period is 3-5 days;manifest begins with a second wave of symptoms,death ultimately occurs within 4-10 days ;the lower dose you recieve the longer you live

central nervous system (worst one)

dose exceeds 5000cGy;symptoms occur and lead to death within hours/days

the 3 syndromes

hematolgic syndrome, central nervous system syndrome,gastrointestinal syndrome

central nervous system symptoms

symptoms are same as GI plus ataxia,edema,vasculitis,meningitis

central nervous system lastime time

signs start in 15 minutes,death wihin 48 hours,death is always the result

LD 50/60

dose of radiation to the whole body that causes 50% of subjects to die within 60 days;if death is to occur it happens within 60 days

the acute radiation lethality is

350 cGy for humans

mean survival time

as the whole body dose increases the average time between exposure and death decreases

LD 50/60 for humans is

350 rad

a whole body dose equivalent of 3000 rem (30 sv) would cause death in 4 to 10 days in which mechanism

gastrointestinal death

Ld 50/30

lethal dose to the total body radiation for 50% of the people exposed in 30 days

cytogenetic damage

considered an early response to radiation exposure

Ld 50/60 represents the dose

that will kill half the people in 60 days

non-linear threshold

applied to both ovaries and will induce permanent sterility

the acute syndrome consist of all the following except

latent injury syndrome

the acute radiation syndrome

by gastrointestinal death indicates a mean survival time of about 4 to 10 days

death caused by a single dose of total body irridation primarily involves damage

bone marrow

early effects of radiation

have very high exposures

late effects of radiation

have lower exposures over a long period of time

the exposures in diagnostic radilogy

are low and of low (LET)

late effects of radiation

induced malignancy and genetic effect

lost late effects are known as

stochastic

alpha particle

high LET

photon and electron

low LET

epidemiologic studies

studies of large numbers of people exposed to toxic substances

studies are diffuicult because

dose is usually unknown and frequency response is low

which of the follwing dose-response relationships best describes radiation induced lung cancer

linear, non threshold

which of the following numbers approximates the total cases of leukemia observed in the 100,000 atomic bomb survivors

150

the latent period of radiation induced leukemia is considered to be

4 to 7 years

analysis of the survivors of the atomic bomb shows that the induction of leukemia

supports a linear, nontreshold dose-response relationship

which of the following populations has shown an increased incidence of leukemia after radiation exposure

atomic bomb surviors

which of the follwing types of cancer has not been demonstrated in humans after irradiation

colon

which type of radiation-induced cancer exhibits a threshold dose-response relationship

skin

the radiation dose-response relationship for genectic mutations is

linear

the relative risk of leukemia after irradiation in utero

would equal 1.0 if thier were no risk

radiation induced leaukemia

has been demonstarted both in animals and humans

the general accepted absolute risk factor for radiaton induced breast cancer is

6 cases/10^6/rad/yr

the relative risk of leaukemia after low dose radition in utero is approximately

1.5

when engaged in a busy fluoroscopy schedule who should wear protective lens shields

neither radiologist or technologist

which of the follwing is the greatest loss of life expectancy

being male

the average latent period for radiation induced cataracts is

15 years

epidemilogy is the study

populations

radiation induced cataracts

follow a non-linear threshold type of dose response relationship

which of the follwing groups has suffered a harmful radiation effect

radium watch dial painters

supporting evidence for radiation carcinogenesis comes from

fluoroscopic monitoring of patients with tuberculosis

diagnostic x-rays have been shown to produce which of the following

chromosome aberrations

which of the follwing statements about radiation-induced cataracts after CT examinantion of the head is most appropriate

the dose is probably in the neighborhood of the treshold for such an effect of

which of the following is an example of a linear, nonthreshold, dose-response relationship

leukemia

linear dose response relationship

must be assumed to be non-threshold than only one dose level is required

radiohormesis

a little bit of radiation is good

relative risk of 1

represents no risk at all

absolute risk estimates

units are a number of 10cases/10^6 persons/rad/year

excess risk estimates

leukemia incidence in an irradiated population exceeds that which is expected then it is the differece between the observed number and the expected number

relative risk estimates

estimating late radiation effects in large populations without having any precise knowledge of thier radiation dose

atomic bomb survivors

no life span shortage observed

radilogic technology

considered a safe occupation

radiation workers reduced life span

12 days

occupational accident life span

74 days

humans reduced life span

10 days for every rad

radiation induced cataracts occur on the

posterior pole of the lens of the eye

5 radiation induced cataracts conclusions

age dependent;the older the person the greater the radiation effect;latent periods have been observed as 5 to 30 years but are an average of 15 years;high LET such as neutrons and protons have a high rbe for cataracts

cyclotron

developed in 1932 by EO Lawrence at the University of California ;produced radionuclides like F-18 for PET imaging

cataracts

appeared in 1949 and by 1960 over 100 cases were reported

local tissue effects (CATARACTS)

physicist looking directly into a cyclotron high energy beam

late effects (CHROSOMES)

leukemia,chromosome damage in the lymphocytes,ovarian cancer and neuroblastoma

late effects (SKIN)

skin cancer and radiodermatitis seen years ago

early efects (CHROSOMES)

hematological depression,chromosome damage with reduced WBC's

early effects (SKIN)

erythema,desquamation

induced malignancys

leukemia,thyroid cancer,skin,breast and lung cancer

elevated incidence of leukemias

a bomb survivors,american radilogist,radiotherapy patients and children in utero

thyroid cancer (first two groups)

Ann Arbor and Rochester treated for enlarged thymus glands due to infection during 1940-1950

skin cancer

begins with radiodermatitis,latent period of 5-10 years;as dose increases so does absolute risk factors

thyroid cancer (third group)

Rongelap Atoll in 1954; Abomb testing with wind-shifts

bone cancer (first group)

radium watch dial painters that touched the brush to thier tounges and ingested radium

breast cancer

TB patients developing this after flouro,10:1 risk created;patients faced the radilogist so the beam entered posterior recived low doses ,fluoro from front higher breats cancer

bone cancer (second group)

group treated with radium salts for various diseases from TB to Arthritis,common in the 1950's

lung cancer

50% of all bohemian pitch blade miners in Germany died due to Radon in the mines;same for the miners in Colorado plateau in teh 1950's filled with Uranium Ore

radon in lung

decays to lead once in the lung

total risk malignncy

400 deaths from radiation induced malignancy after an exposure of 1 RAD to 1,000,000 persons when all such cases occuring with 25 years of exposure are counted

three mile island

1970, 2 million inhabitants of the island over a 50 mile radius, 330,000 cancer cases reported

natural cancer deaths

400,000 should occur anway

radiation and pregnancy

high level radiation effects do exist and it is dose related,more dose to fetus more problems

radiologist offspring

suggest an increase in congenital abnormalites and depressed fertility but the study has problems

first trimester

most radiosensitive,first 10 days

doubling dose

50 to 250 rads;dose of radiation that will produce twice the frequency of genectic mutations as would have been observed with radiation

radiation induced chromosome abbreations are which of the following

early and late effects

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