Title of leader of Safavid empire or early Iran.
the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 which marked the beginning of the Muslim era
a pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims
a territory surrendered after World War I and put under the power of a member of the League of Nations.
a supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government
someone employed to make written copies of documents and manuscripts
Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets
a simple story that illustrates a moral or religious lesson
a tiered, pyramid-shaped structure that formed part of a sumerian temple
a fertile place in a desert where there is water and vegetation
a person who dies for their beliefs
the head of the Roman Catholic Church
a military expedition by Christians against Muslims who controlled the Holy Land
prejudice against Jews
government run by religious leaders
Shi'ite who led the overthrow of the shah of Iran in 1979 and created an Islamic republic.
Iraqi leader who waged war against Iran
Osama bin laden
Arab terrorist who established al-Qaeda (born in 1957)
Israeli leader who made peace with Palestinians and PLO and was assassinated by fellow Israeli
Egyptian president who made peace with Israel and then was assassinated
"The Uprising" against Israel by some Palestinians
people who flee their country because of persecution or danger
the art of beautiful handwriting
Land taken by Israel during 6 days War in1967
Savior sent by God
Ethnic group that founded the monotheistic faith of Judaism
Peace negotiations between Palestinians and Israelis during the 90s which promised limited self-rule to Palestinians
Basic rules of Islam. 1. Profession of faith 2. Pray five times a day 3. Give alms (give money) 4. Ramadan fast 5. Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).
brought iron technology to the Middle East
developed an alphabet that many modern European alphabets are based on (including English)
developed the first written code of laws
holy book of Judaism
People of the Book
the name for Jews and Christians for whom the Muslims had religious tolerance
most valuable resource in Middle Eastern nations
nation invaded by Iraq which led to the first Persian Gulf War
West Bank, Golan Heights, Gaza Strip
Territories taken over by Israel during the 1967 war.
French built but British controlled until 1956
British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI
Ataturk ("father of the turks") wanted to modernize turkey. declared turkey a republic, defeated western occupation, overthrew sultan
Region that became partitioned for a Jewish homeland after World War II leading to many wars with neighboring Arab nations.
Organization controlling the supply of oil. Refused to sell oil to nations supporting Israel during Arab-Israeli wars.
Region in the Middle East surrounding two major rivers which provide stable agricultural water supply.