Middle East Review

56 terms by MrsTsWorld

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9th grade World Cultures course

shah

Title of leader of Safavid empire or early Iran.

hejira

the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 which marked the beginning of the Muslim era

hajj

a pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims

mandate

a territory surrendered after World War I and put under the power of a member of the League of Nations.

caliph

a supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government

scribe

someone employed to make written copies of documents and manuscripts

cuneiform

Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets

parable

a simple story that illustrates a moral or religious lesson

ziggurat

a tiered, pyramid-shaped structure that formed part of a sumerian temple

oasis

a fertile place in a desert where there is water and vegetation

martyr

a person who dies for their beliefs

Pope

the head of the Roman Catholic Church

Crusade

a military expedition by Christians against Muslims who controlled the Holy Land

anti-Semitism

prejudice against Jews

theocracy

government run by religious leaders

Ayatollah Khomeini

Shi'ite who led the overthrow of the shah of Iran in 1979 and created an Islamic republic.

Saddam Hussein

Iraqi leader who waged war against Iran

Yitzak Rabin

Israeli leader who made peace with Palestinians and PLO and was assassinated by fellow Israeli

Anwar Sadat

Egyptian president who made peace with Israel and then was assassinated

intifada

"The Uprising" against Israel by some Palestinians

refugees

people who flee their country because of persecution or danger

calligraphy

the art of beautiful handwriting

occupied territories

Land taken by Israel during 6 days War in1967

messiah

Savior sent by God

Hebrews

Ethnic group that founded the monotheistic faith of Judaism

Oslo Accords

Peace negotiations between Palestinians and Israelis during the 90s which promised limited self-rule to Palestinians

Five Pillars

Basic rules of Islam. 1. Profession of faith 2. Pray five times a day 3. Give alms (give money) 4. Ramadan fast 5. Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).

Hittites

brought iron technology to the Middle East

Phoenicians

developed an alphabet that many modern European alphabets are based on (including English)

Babylonians

developed the first written code of laws

Torah

holy book of Judaism

People of the Book

the name for Jews and Christians for whom the Muslims had religious tolerance

oil

most valuable resource in Middle Eastern nations

Kuwait

nation invaded by Iraq which led to the first Persian Gulf War

West Bank, Golan Heights, Gaza Strip

Territories taken over by Israel during the 1967 war.

Suez Canal

French built but British controlled until 1956

Balfour Declaration

British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI

Mustafa Kemal

Ataturk ("father of the turks") wanted to modernize turkey. declared turkey a republic, defeated western occupation, overthrew sultan

Palestine

Region that became partitioned for a Jewish homeland after World War II leading to many wars with neighboring Arab nations.

OPEC

Organization controlling the supply of oil. Refused to sell oil to nations supporting Israel during Arab-Israeli wars.

Fertile Crescent

Region in the Middle East surrounding two major rivers which provide stable agricultural water supply.

PLO

Organization dedicated to freedom and self-rule for Palestinians.

Anatolian Peninsula

In Southwest Asia between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Heart of Ottoman Empire.

Nile Valley

Center of ancient Egyptian empire.

Arabian Peninsula

Birthplace of Islam

Northern Tier

Region of Middle East filled with mountains and plateaus.

Alexander the Great

Conquered Persia and spread Greek culture throughout the Middle East.

Zoroaster

Founder of earliest monotheistic religion. Connected to Persian culture.

Hammurabi

Babylonian king responsible for first written code of laws.

Mosque

Islamic place of worship, generally the central focus of a town.

Veil

Symbol of modesty.

Young Turks

Responsible for Armenian genocide during WWI.

Secular State

A state created apart from religious establishments and in which there is a high degree of separation between religious and political organizations. Turkey is an example.

Aswan Dam

It was built by the French to control the flooding of the Nile River.

Persian Gulf War

Conflict between Iraq and a coalition of countries led by the United States to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait which they had invaded in hopes of controlling their oil supply.

6 Day War

Egypt, Syria and Jordan fight against Israel, but Israel's wins and gains more occupied territory.

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