the era of scientific thought in europe during which careful observation of the natural world was made, and accepted beliefs were questioned (mid 1500s-late 1700s)
-a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses,
-Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo began it
-earth was the center of the Universe (Aristotle)
(1473-1543) Polish clergyman. Sun was the center of the universe; the planets went around it. On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres. Destroyed Aristotle's view of the universe - heliocentric theory.
planets revolve around the sun
Brahe and Kepler
Brahe had tons of data from observations that Kepler analyzed after he died; Kepler mathematically showed that planets moved in ellipses, not circles
Sir Francis Bacon
-English thinker who promoted the scientific method and said, "knowledge is power." -1561-1626
-empiricism (experimental method)
-"I think, therefore I am"
-helped with scientific method
English scientist; author of Principia Mathematica; drew various astronomical and physical observations and wider theories together in a neat framework of natural laws; established principles of motion and defined forces of gravity.
Janssen and van Leeuwenhoek
Janssen: first microscope
German physicist who invented the mercury thermometer and developed the scale of temperature that bears his name (1686-1736)
Swedish astronomer who devised the centigrade thermometer (1701-1744)
-(1564-1642) Italian astronomer. First to use a telescope to study the heavens. Discovered the first moons of an extraterrestrial body (Jupiter's four largest moons).
-This scientist proved Copernicus' theory that the sun was the center of the solar system and developed the modern experimental method.
Italian physicist who invented the mercury barometer (1608-1647)
-physician who published the first accurate and detailed study of human anatomy
-a Flemish surgeon who is considered the father of modern anatomy (1514-1564)
English physician (17th century) who demonstrated circular movement of blood in animals, function of heart as pump.
Jenner inoculated people with small amounts of cowpox to prevent them from getting smallpox (1749-1823)
Irish chemist who established that air has weight and whose definitions of chemical elements and chemical reactions helped to dissociate chemistry from alchemy (1627-1691)
-Introduced the idea of Plants releasing oxygen
-isolated oxygen as a gas
invented system of naming chemical elements; regarded as founder of modern chemistry
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
-wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful governemnt could keep an orderly society
-said that people are naturally selfish and wicked. People had to hand over rights to a strong ruler. (English, 1650)
agreement among all the people in a society to give up part of their freedom to a government in exchange for protection of natural rights. John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were two European political philosophers who wrote about this concept.
--English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
-- said that people could learn from experience and improve themselves. Criticized absolute monarchy and favored self-government. He believed that all people have the right to life, liberty, and property (natural rights). (English, 1650)
Life, Liberty, and Property
Thinkers of the Enlightenment; Wanted to educate the socially elite, but not the masses; were not allowed to openly criticize church or state, so used satire and double-meaning in their writings to avoid being banned; Salons held by wealthy women also kept philosophes safe; They considered themselves part of an intellectual community, and wrote back and forth to each other to share ideas.
-French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
-made fun of government, but fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religion, and freedom of speech. "I do not agree with a word you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it." (French, 1700
-came up with the idea of checks and balances of power. He also said that Britain as the best-governed and most politically balanced. (French, 1700)
-separation of powers
separation of powers
Principle by which the powers of government are divided among separate branches
Jean Jacques Rousseau
-- said that man is inherently good, and all men are created equal. (French, 1750)
-, A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
-- a person accused of a crime should receive a speedy trial. Torture should never be used because it will make people confess to things that they have not done. (Italian, 1700)
-believed in reform of the criminal justice system
English author from 1759-97 who was one of the first feminists and preached woman's rights and denounced men for excluding them from Enlightenment ideas
-edited and contributed to the Encyclopédie. (French, 1750)
-, Philosopher who edited a book called the Encyclopedia which was banned by the French king and pope.
-the absolute monarchs in 18th-century Europe who ruled according to the principles of the Enlightenment
-sculpture and art in the 17th and 18th century western cultures in europe characterized by exaggeration, overstatement, and flare for the artifice and the theatrical
- js bach
-, relating to a simple, elegant style (based on ideas and themes from ancient Greece and Rome) that characterized the arts in Europe during the late 1700s
This political revolution began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy.
Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
-3rd President of the United States
-chief drafter of the Declaration of Independence; made the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and sent out the Lewis and Clark Expedition to explore it (1743-1826)
Scientist and inventor. Invented bifocals, odometer, and elecrtricity experiments.Most popular publication was Poor Richard's Almanac. Published clever quotes. Example of Enlightenment spirit.'
Declaration of Independence
This document was
adopted on July 4, 1776. It
established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the
majority of this document.
The document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of the U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the Articles of Confederation.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.