Chapter 22- Enlightenment and Revolution

Created by jro5596 

Upgrade to
remove ads

Chapter 22- Enlightenment and Revolution: vocabulary

Scientific Revolution

the era of scientific thought in europe during which careful observation of the natural world was made, and accepted beliefs were questioned (mid 1500s-late 1700s)

scientific method

-a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses,
-Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo began it

geocentric theory

-earth was the center of the Universe (Aristotle)
-religious

Nicolaus Copernicus

(1473-1543) Polish clergyman. Sun was the center of the universe; the planets went around it. On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres. Destroyed Aristotle's view of the universe - heliocentric theory.

heliocentric theory

planets revolve around the sun

Brahe and Kepler

Brahe had tons of data from observations that Kepler analyzed after he died; Kepler mathematically showed that planets moved in ellipses, not circles
-around 1600s

Sir Francis Bacon

-English thinker who promoted the scientific method and said, "knowledge is power." -1561-1626
-empiricism (experimental method)

Rene Descartes

-"I think, therefore I am"
-analytical geometry
-mathematician
-helped with scientific method

Isaac Newton

English scientist; author of Principia Mathematica; drew various astronomical and physical observations and wider theories together in a neat framework of natural laws; established principles of motion and defined forces of gravity.

Janssen and van Leeuwenhoek

Janssen: first microscope
Leeuwenhoek:

Fahrenheit

German physicist who invented the mercury thermometer and developed the scale of temperature that bears his name (1686-1736)

Celsius

Swedish astronomer who devised the centigrade thermometer (1701-1744)

Galileo Galilei

-(1564-1642) Italian astronomer. First to use a telescope to study the heavens. Discovered the first moons of an extraterrestrial body (Jupiter's four largest moons).
-This scientist proved Copernicus' theory that the sun was the center of the solar system and developed the modern experimental method.

Torricelli

Italian physicist who invented the mercury barometer (1608-1647)

Andreas Vesalius

-physician who published the first accurate and detailed study of human anatomy
-a Flemish surgeon who is considered the father of modern anatomy (1514-1564)

William Harvey

English physician (17th century) who demonstrated circular movement of blood in animals, function of heart as pump.

Edward Jenner

Jenner inoculated people with small amounts of cowpox to prevent them from getting smallpox (1749-1823)
-vaccination

Robert Boyle

Irish chemist who established that air has weight and whose definitions of chemical elements and chemical reactions helped to dissociate chemistry from alchemy (1627-1691)

Joseph Priestly

-Introduced the idea of Plants releasing oxygen
-isolated oxygen as a gas

Antoine Lavoisier

invented system of naming chemical elements; regarded as founder of modern chemistry

Enlightenment

a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions

Thomas Hobbes

-wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful governemnt could keep an orderly society
-said that people are naturally selfish and wicked. People had to hand over rights to a strong ruler. (English, 1650)

social contract

agreement among all the people in a society to give up part of their freedom to a government in exchange for protection of natural rights. John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were two European political philosophers who wrote about this concept.

John Locke

--English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
-- said that people could learn from experience and improve themselves. Criticized absolute monarchy and favored self-government. He believed that all people have the right to life, liberty, and property (natural rights). (English, 1650)

natural rights

Life, Liberty, and Property

philosophes

Thinkers of the Enlightenment; Wanted to educate the socially elite, but not the masses; were not allowed to openly criticize church or state, so used satire and double-meaning in their writings to avoid being banned; Salons held by wealthy women also kept philosophes safe; They considered themselves part of an intellectual community, and wrote back and forth to each other to share ideas.
-france

Voltaire

-French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
-made fun of government, but fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religion, and freedom of speech. "I do not agree with a word you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it." (French, 1700

Montesquieu

-came up with the idea of checks and balances of power. He also said that Britain as the best-governed and most politically balanced. (French, 1700)
-separation of powers

separation of powers

Principle by which the powers of government are divided among separate branches

Jean Jacques Rousseau

-- said that man is inherently good, and all men are created equal. (French, 1750)
-, A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy

Beccaria

-- a person accused of a crime should receive a speedy trial. Torture should never be used because it will make people confess to things that they have not done. (Italian, 1700)
-believed in reform of the criminal justice system

Wollstonecraft

English author from 1759-97 who was one of the first feminists and preached woman's rights and denounced men for excluding them from Enlightenment ideas

Denis Diderot

-edited and contributed to the Encyclopédie. (French, 1750)
-, Philosopher who edited a book called the Encyclopedia which was banned by the French king and pope.

enlightened despots

-the absolute monarchs in 18th-century Europe who ruled according to the principles of the Enlightenment
-

Baroque style

-sculpture and art in the 17th and 18th century western cultures in europe characterized by exaggeration, overstatement, and flare for the artifice and the theatrical
- js bach

neoclassical

-mozart/beethoven
-, relating to a simple, elegant style (based on ideas and themes from ancient Greece and Rome) that characterized the arts in Europe during the late 1700s

american revolution

This political revolution began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy.

George Washington

Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
1732-1799

Thomas Jefferson

-3rd President of the United States
-chief drafter of the Declaration of Independence; made the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and sent out the Lewis and Clark Expedition to explore it (1743-1826)

Ben Franklin

Scientist and inventor. Invented bifocals, odometer, and elecrtricity experiments.Most popular publication was Poor Richard's Almanac. Published clever quotes. Example of Enlightenment spirit.'
1700s

Declaration of Independence

This document was
adopted on July 4, 1776. It
established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the
majority of this document.

U.S. Constitution

The document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of the U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the Articles of Confederation.

Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set