The hotter an object is...
...the higher the temperature
...the higher its level of internal motions or vibration
...the more light it radiates
How do we determine the intensity (strength) at different wavelengths?
By plotting the object's spectrum (pl. spectra)
What is the purpose of a spectrograph?
to split incoming light into its components at different wavelengths
What absorption lines/dips in graph of intensity vs. wavelengths indicate?
changes in brightness
What would the light radiating from a back body look like?
A continuous color band/solid curve
What is an object that absorbs and re-admits all radiation landing on it?
a black body
What can tell us the temperature of a black body?
what wavelength the intensity peak is at
What is the lowest point on the Kelvin scale?
Water freezes at ____K.
Water boils at____K.
What is Wien's Law?
wavelength of maximum intensity = 0.29/T
Where wavelength of max intensity is in cm
Light from hot objects peak at ____wavelengths.
Light from cool objects peak at____ wavelengths.
Rate at which energy is emitted form an object is called?
The luminosity depends on which two factors?
temperature or surface area
Which are more luminous? Larger or smaller black bodies?
Larger black bodies
Luminosity is directionally proportional to the temperature to the what power?
What does Stefan's Law say?
Luminosity is almost equal to surface area time temperature to the 4th
Every _____ has it's own set of spectral lines.
What types of lines are missing radiation at certain specific wavelengths?
What are the spectra that are lacking radiation at most wavelengths?
Kirchhoff's Law 1: A hot object or a hot, dense gas produces a ______spectrum.
Kirchhoff's Law 2: A low density hot gas produces an _________spectrum.
emission line spectrum
Kirchhoff's Law 3: A cool gas in front of a source of light produces an________spectrum.
When do we see emission lines appear when we look at the sun?
During solar eclipses.
Atoms are made up of??
Protons, Neutrons, and electrons
What determines what an element is
Total number of protons and neutrons?
Why are neutrons and protons close to the same mass but electrons are less?
We don't know!
Why is the Bohr model of the atom incorrect for every element EXCEPT hydrogen?
Electrons don't follow orbital paths.
How do atoms stay together?
Strong nuclear forces.
When moving to a lower energy level electrons ____a photon of light.
When moving to a higher energy level electrons____a photon of light.
How do we calculate energy lost or gained by the absorption or emitting of photons.
Energy = 1/wavelength
What does quantized mean?
in discrete amounts
Where do we see Lynman absorption lines?
In ultraviolet spectrum of light with electrons at the ground state (n=1)
Which series of absorptions lines do we in the visible light spectrum where the electrons are at n=2?
Where do we see the Paschen series?
In infrared light with the electrons at n=3
What is the "state" electrons are in while occupying higher energy levels?
Energy levels closer to the nucleus have_____energy compared to the _____energy levels closer to the center.
Light sources moving toward us have their radiation shifted to shorter wavelengths. This is called?
Light sources moving away from us have their radiation shifted to longer wavelengths. This is called?
What is the shifting of wavelengths called? (Hint: Sheldon is a zebra!)
The Doppler effect
What increases the strength of the Doppler effect?
What does the width of spectral lines provide measures of?
rotation, turbulence, and magnetic fields
Where do stars get their light?
Nuclear fusion in the core.
What is the most important property of stars?
What is apparent brightness?
How bright stars APPEAR to be!
The faintest stars in the sky have an apparent magnitude of?
How many times brighter then a 6 magnitude star is a 1 magnitude star?
What is Sirus's (canis major) apparent magnitude?
What is the sun's apparent magnitude?
What is the faintest apparent magnitude we can see through binoculars?
What is the faintest apparent magnitude the Hubble Space Telescope can detect?
What is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from us?
the apparent brightness of a star
the apparent displacement of a nearby object relative to my distant objects, as the observer's location changes is called?
How many arcminuets are in a degree?
How many arcseconds are in an arcminuet?
If the object is closer to you the parallax will be?
The distance between two different vantage points is called?
What is the baseline when we use opposite sides of earth's orbit?
An object with a parallax angle of 1 arcsecond lies at a distance of?
3.26 light years
What is the distance of 3.26 called?
The apparent magnitude that an object would have at 10 pc(parsec) is called?
What is the equation for calculating absolute magnitude
absolute magnitude (M) = apparent magnitude (m)-5log(distance[d])
What is the sun's absolute magnitude?
What colored star is the coolest?
What colored star is the warmest?
The changes in absorption lines in stars with identical elemental makeup is due to?
the stripping of electrons from atoms
Heluim I is in it's?
Hydrogen II has lost...
Iron III has lost...
What is the hottest spectral classification?
What is the coolest spectral classification?
What is the order of spectral classification from hottest to coolest? (HINT: Oh Be A Fine Guy, Kiss Me!)
Which number is hotter? 0 or 9
What letters represent stars cooler then M?
L and T
1 solar radii is?
the radius of the sun
a circle with a dot in the middle indicates?
The main sequence of stars are referred to as?
The biggest and brightest giants are called?
Stars that are smaller than dwarfs are called?
White Dwarf stars
The star 'Betelgeuse' is no longer spherical. This indicates that Betelgeuse is?
Very unstable, and will soon go super nova.