a reference to something literary, mythological, or historical
example: Patrick Henry urged his listeners not to be "betrayed with a kiss".
something which has as its primary purpose to teach or instruct
example: Benjamin Franklin's autobiography shows his readers how to be successful; Aesop's fables present morals
informal words or expressions not ussually acceptable in formal writing
example: Huck Finn says, "I got the fantids."
an intensley vehement highly emotional verbal attack (an ad homanem attack)
example: My opponent is a lying, cheating, immoral bully!
a concise statement which expresses succinctly a general truth or idea, often using rhyme or balance
example: "Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise."
the manner in which words are arranged by a writer into sentences
example: a single sentence in a Faulkner work can sometimes be longer than an entire page, but Steinbeck tends to use simpler, shorter sentences
the act of speaking directly to an absent or imaginary person, or to some abstraction
example: "O death, where is thy sting?
O grave, where is thy victory?"
needless repetition which adds no meaning or understanding
example: two twins, free gift, close proximity
a logical argument in which a conclusion is based on a major and minor premise
example: We get paid on Friday. (major)
Tomorrow is Friday; (minor)
therefore, we will get paid tomorrow. (conclusion)
a statement consisting of two parallel parts in which the second part is structurally reversed
example: Out went the taper as she hurried in.
an indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant
example: "glisten" v. "sweat", "passing" v. "dying"
using a part of an object to represent a whole
example: "Great set of wheels!"=a car
a fanciful, particularly clever extended metaphor
example: Donne compares himself and his wife to the two legs of a compass, one staying in place while the other circles and eventually joins it.
the omission of a word or phrase which is grammatically necessary, but can be deduced from context
example: Kathleen wants to be a firefighter; Sara, a nurse.
the linking of one word with 2 other words in 2 strikingly different ways
example: Soldiers exhausted their weapons, exhausted their patriotism
a type of understatement in which something affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite
example: I am not interested in loosing you.
the literal meaning of a word
example: difference between odor and fragrance
the implied or associative meaning of a word
describing or predicting what will happen in the future
exapmle: His ______ utterance concerning the fate of Queen Mary of Scottland made him a traitor in her eyes.
an influence that does not follow logically from the premises
example: Richard Nixon said that it should be obvious that he was honest because his wife wore a simple cloth coat.
denoting a period of time in the past that was idyllically happy and peaceful.
example: The _________ days of the mid-1980s saw profits soar and the economy healthy.
a moment of sudden revelation or insight
example: toward the end of the play, Othello suddenly realizes that he has been misled.
relating to or denoting mental images having unusual vividness and detail, as if actually visible
example: Robyn recalled an _______ image that made her audience feel as if they were there.
describing an excessive display of learning or scholarship
example: the student annoyed his friends by lecturing them on every subject.
use of humor to emphasize human weaknesses or imperfections in social institutions
a humorous imitation of a serious work
example: Spaceballs and the space epic genera hotshots and action films thin thighs in thirty years and exercise books
a brief personal narrative which focuses on a particular incident or event
example: Matt brought the class to near tears when he recounted the time Paige launched a negative facebook campaign against him.
a literary work in which characters objects or actions represent abstractions
example: the character "everyman" in the famous morality play represents every man
the repetition of initial sounds in successive or neighboring words
example: while I nodded, nearly, napping...
harsh, cutting, language/tone designed to ridicule
example: Asked if he liked blue, Matt answered "No, I hate it. Thats why I drive a blue car and wear mostly blue clothes."
a situation or statement where the truth is the opposite of appearances.
example: In King Lear, Lear believes his daughter Cordelia to be disloyal when she is in fact his only faithful daughter.