Modernism 2

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Modernism

What period during 1914-1945 was an age when 'old' values like Victorianism and rural life clashed with 'new' values like women's rights and urban life? This period is marked by two World Wars, and in many ways it can also be understood as a war between fundamentally different worldviews.

Taft

Elected in 1908, this president was elected because Americans believed he would continue Roosevelt's popular Republican polices.

Dollar Diplomacy

Taft's strategy of encouraging Wall Street Investors to invest their money in foreign markets in which the U.S. has strategic interests, such as the Far East and the Panama Canal region.

Dollar Diplomacy in China

Japan and Russia controlled the Manchurian railroad system. Taft believed that if he didn't take interest in this system that the U.S. would be frozen out of emerging Chinese markets and the U.S. "open door" policy in China would be undermined. In 1909, Secretary of State Philander C. Knox proposed that American bankers and industrialists would purchase the Manchurian railroads from Japan and Russia and return them to Chinese control. Japan and Russia refused the offer, which publicly embarrassed the Taft administration, but Taft persevered, and in 1912 the U.S. and five other nations offered the new Chinese Republic a loan.

Dollar Diplomacy in Latin America

In an extension of the Roosevelt Corollary, Taft encouraged investors to spend money in Latin American countries such as Honduras and Haiti. Adhering to the Monroe Doctrine of 1823, Taft would not allow foreign investors into Latin American markets, so America felt a responsibility to support these financially struggling republics. Many of these nations were constantly on the verge of financial collapse and required foreign investment to strengthen their shaky foundations.

Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty

What treaty was signed In November 1903 by Philippe Bunau-Varilla, Panama's ambassador to the United States, granting rights the United States to build and indefinitely administer the Panama Canal.

Bunau-Varilla

He served as Panama's ambassador and was a French citizen. He was not authorized to sign a treaty on behalf of Panama without Panamanian review. This treaty became a contentious diplomatic issue between the two countries, culminating in riots in which 21 Panamanians and 4 U.S. soldiers were killed.

Latin America

This region later required U.S. troops to protect the substantial American investment. In 1912, a group of 2,500 marines landed in Nicaragua to suppress a rebellion, and they remained for 13 years due to continued instability.

Woodrow Wilson

This democrat won the election in 1912. Within one week of taking office, he removed governmental support for American businesses operating in the Caribbean and China. He was an intense critic of imperialism and his goal was to reverse Roosevelt's "big stick" policies and Taft's "dollar diplomacy." His vision for U.S. foreign policy was based on morality. He strongly believed that his immediate predecessors had pursued a policy that would breed dislike of the U.S. and often sacrifice goodwill for short-term gain. For this reason,his foreign policy has sometimes been called "missionary diplomacy" or "moral diplomacy."

Bull Moose Party

Roosevelt ran under this third party, in the election of 1912, slipping the Republican Party split in two - giving democrats a win.

Haiti and Dollar Diplomacy

Taft had tried to improve _______'s economy through the influx of American investment called ________ _______, but Wilson began withdrawing some of America's involvement when he took office. In 1914 and 1915, their people were outraged by the oppressive nature of their President, so they rebelled. In response, Wilson reluctantly sent troops to protect American citizens and investments. Due to continued instability, U.S. troops remained for 19 years.

Moral Diplomacy

The system that Wilson used in trying to stabilize the Caribbean and Latin America during the onset of World War I, with a minimal amount of American involvement. However, he ended up having to send troops to Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic, which ensured a U.S. military presence in the Caribbean and Central America for decades. Regardless of his sincere intentions to halt the spread of imperialism, Wilson intervened in Latin American affairs more than any other president.

Mexican Revolution

A series of brutal dictators had controlled the country for decades, and many of them mismanaged their resources, making themselves rich while the majority of Mexicans were desperately poor.

Porfirio Diaz

the leader at the start of the Mexican Revolution. He was particularly ruthless and oppressive.

General Huerta

In 1913 a coup replaced the sitting President this man. Many Mexicans feared him and fled to the United States in order to escape his tyranny.

Venustiano Carranza and Francisco "Pancho" Villa

In 1914 the U.S. began supplying weapons to Huerta's rivals. These leaders created a rebel army to unseat Huerta.

ABC Powers

Argentina, Brazil, and Chile were known as the ____________. They convinced President Huerta to step down.

Pancho Villa

Carranza filled the open presidential seat, but ___________ emerged as his chief rival. He not only defied Carranza's régime by leading an armed revolution, he directly challenged the extensive U.S. involvement in Mexico. Wilson supported Carranza against him and he, angered by Wilson's actions, retaliated by killing eighteen Americans in Mexico and then embarking on a bold raid into Columbus, New Mexico killing nineteen Americans.

the triple wall of privilege" (:the tariff, the banks, and the trusts.)

President Wilson domestically called out for an all-out war

Underwood Tariff Bill

Wilson called a special meeting of Congress in 1913 to address the tariff. He convinced Congress to pass the _________________, which significantly reduced the tariff rates.

Federal Reserve

The most monetary problem of the Gilded Age was the inelasticity of currency. Banking reserves were located in New York and a handful of other large cities and could not be mobilized in times of financial stress. In 1913, President Wilson delivered a plea to Congress for a reform of the banking system. Congress answered and in the same year, he signed the _______________ Act, appointed a new ________________ Board, and empowered the board to issue paper money. As a result of his decision, the amount of money in United States circulation can be increased or decreased as needed.

Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914

At Wilson's persuasion, Congress passed this act in 1914. The commissioners were expected to crush monopolies at the source.

Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914

lengthened the Sherman Act's list of business practices that were deemed objectionable and it also sought to exempt labor and agricultural organizations from anti-trust prosecution, while legalizing strikes and peaceful picketing.

New South

This term describes the attempt by some Southerners in the late 19th century to lead the South toward a modern, industrial future. The idea was that African Americans would no longer be dependent on the raising of cotton, but rather would industrialize and become part of the modern national economy.

Henry Grady

He was the editor of the Atlanta Constitution, popularized the phrase "New South" through his repeated use of it in articles and editorials for the newspaper.

Grade and Booker T. Washington

New South advocates who wanted southern economic regeneration, sectional reconciliation, racial harmony and their idea of the gospel of work.

90

(1900)____% of African Americans still lived in the Southern US in 1900 - roughly the same percentage as lived in the South in 1870.

3/4

(1900)__/__ of black households were located in rural places.

1/5

(1900) Only _____ African American household heads owned their own homes (less than half the percentage among whites).

half and farmer

(1900) About ______ of black men and about 35 percent of black women who reported an occupation to the Census said that they worked as a ______, as opposed to about one-third of white men and about eight percent of white women.

farm and South

A typical African American family at the start of the twentieth century lived and worked on a _____ in the_____, did not own its home, and was unlikely to have its children in school.

Plessy V. Ferguson (1896)

This case solidified "Jim Crow" in the South by establishing that the constitutionality of so-called "separate but equal" services and facilities for black and white Americans.

lynching

The South's attempt to maintain Jim Crow also led to a late 19th/early 20th century spike in race-related __________. One motive for this was the enforcement of Jim Crow social conventions - punishing perceived violations of customs and laws mandating segregation of whites and blacks.

Vote

In order to _______, poll taxes, literacy and understanding tests, and increased residency requirements, that disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites were used in 1890-1908. Forcing them off voter registration lists also prevented them from serving on juries, whose members were limited to voters. When challenges to these laws made their way to the Supreme Court, the states' provisions were upheld.

Ida B. Wells

In 1892 journalist was shocked when three friends in Memphis were lynched because their grocery store competed successfully with a white grocery store, and in response, began a global anti-lynching campaign that raised awareness of the social injustice. As a result of her efforts, black women in the US became active in the anti-lynching crusade, often in the form of clubs that raised money to publicize the abuses. When the NAACP (1909) was formed, she became part of its multi-racial leadership and continued to be active against lynching. The battle for control over the "New South" was becoming increasingly heated.

neutrality proclamation

President Wilson issued a _______________________at the outbreak of World War I. Most Americans were anti-Germany from the outset, but the majority of Americans were against becoming overly involved in the fighting.

Arabic

In 1915, several months after Germany started to use submarines in the war, one of Germany's submarines sunk the British liner Lusitania, killing 128 Americans. When Germany sunk another British liner, the ______, Berlin agreed to not sink unarmed passenger ships without warning, but continued to sink innocent ships including a passenger steamer, the Sussex.

Sussex Pledge

President Wilson informed the Germans that unless they stopped sinking ships, he would break diplomatic relations, leading to war. Germany agreed to Wilson's ultimatum, but attached additions to their ________________: the United States would have to persuade the Allies to modify what Berlin regarded as their illegal blockade. Wilson accepted the Germany pledge, without accepting the "string" of additions.

Sussex Pledge and Zimmerman Telegram

Wilson ran for reelection on the promise that he would keep the United States out of the war. However, two events changed his mind:

1) 1917; Germany announced it would resume unrestricted submarine warfare (would sink all our ships) and that was a dejection of the __________ ________.

...

2) The _________ ________, a message intercepted by the British from Germany to Mexico in 1917 proposing that in the event of a German war with the United states, Mexico should attack the US. It would be a Mexican opportunity to retake the Mexican Cession.

...

October Revolution Bolshevik

Then one key event changed the trajectory of the war in Europe: In March 1917 a revolution overthrew Russia's tsarist regime. The second Revolution, commonly called the_________________, was an armed coup organized by the ______________party. These revolutions were caused by and led to Russia pulling out of World War I. Shortly after President Wilson called a special Congressional session, in which he proposed the declaration of war against Germany.

"Make the world safe for democracy"

This was Wilson's famous line justifying United States involvement in the World War. It was based on the belief that from this international power struggle, a democratic revolution could arise. In other words, a new democratic world order led by the United States would follow.

President Woodrow Wilson's War Message (April 2, 1917)

"The present German submarine warfare against commerce is a warfare against mankind."

Senator George W. Norris (Opposition to Wilson's War Message, April 4, 1917)

This senator said that the reason we're entering the War is all economic profit motive,'merchants of death' - we're being brought into this war by the people who will make money off of the war.

Senator Robert M. LaFollette (Opposition to Wilson's War Message, April 4, 1917)

"The failure to treat the belligerent nations of Europe alike, the failure to reject the unlawful "war zones" of both Germany and Great Britain is wholly accountable for our present dilemma." (claiming that we have already picked sides)

Destroy this Mad Brute

This cartoon displays a German soldier, the club says culture - the German has this high illustrious culture, but underneath they are brutal. The women is America, and the monkey is going to rape her...any one that we want to dehumanize we picture them as a monkey. Part of the mobilization for was to create an either you're with us, or with out us mentality. The war is not an everyday feeling, now 5% of a nation is taking on the burden. In World War I everyone is pitching.

Liberty Loans

Raising money was a key issue in the war. The government organized bond drives, or_______________, and people felt obliged to buy bonds because they were afraid of being seen as unpatriotic. Eventually, they raised over $21 billion for the war.

War Industries Board

Created in July 1917, they controlled raw materials, production, prices, and labor relations. It also encouraged production by allocating raw materials, standardizing manufactured products, instituting strict production and purchasing controls, and paying high prices to businesses.

The Food Administration

This was created in 1917 as part of the war effort, and a response to the poor harvests of 1916 and 1917. Headed by Herbert Hoover, it set prices for agricultural goods high to encourage the production of agricultural products. It encouraged conservation with such days as "meatless Tuesdays."

Patriotism

Frankfurters were renamed "hot dogs" or "liberty dogs", sauerkraut became "liberty cabbage," and German shepherds became "liberty dogs." People with German surnames legally changed their names, and language at all critical of the United States became suspect - this is an example of?

The Espionage Act of 1917

This enacted fines and imprisonment for false statements, inciting rebellion, or obstructing recruitment or the draft. Also papers which opposed the government could be banned from the U.S. postal service.

The Sedition Act of 1918

This made any criticism of the government illegal. It was poorly applied and used to trample civil liberties during the war hysteria as in the example of the imprisonment of Eugene Debs.

Eugene V. Debs imprisoned

He was questionably imprisoned and was given a 10-year prison term for giving a speech at a Socialist's convention. The speech criticized American policy, involvement in the war and for warning of the dangers of war and militarism. His imprisonment was an example of the hysteria of the period.

Schenk v. U.S. (1919):

A U.S. Supreme circuit decision that upheld the Espionage Act and concluded that citizens do not have a right to full freedom of speech in wartime. Even though this later Supreme Court cases will, to some extent, overturn this rule, the case did establish a "clear and present danger" precedent limiting some kinds of speech, even to this day.

The Fourteen Points

These were Wilson's proposals and beliefs for a post-war world order. They dealt with the things that led to World War I. For example, the first points called for open treaties, freedom of the seas, arms reduction and free trade. The other points dealt with self-determination and finally a general association of nations, the League of Nations. During the conference of Versailles, Wilson pushed the Fourteen Points and was partly successful.

Versailles Conference and Treaty:

The Big Four dominated the conference in 1919 that determined the postwar world order. Wilson promoted his Fourteen Points while other Allies sought vengeance. The treaty found Germany liable for the war and established new nations based on self-determination. It also made German colonies mandates under the League of Nations and included the controversial Article X that kept the US out of the League. These provisions set the stage for World War II.

Article 10

The most controversial of the League of Nations covenants, this article of the Versailles Treaty said that all nations must protect the territorial and political integrity of other League members. The article meant that if one nation was engaged in war, all others must become involved. This article was a large part of why the US rejected the League.

Reparations

These were implemented by European powers wanting vengeance against Germany. Germany was forced to pay a huge sum, some $33 billion to the Allies for civilian and veterans costs. This huge amount led to Germany's economic downfall, allowing for the rise of Hitler and World War II.

Senate rejection, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge:

Senate reservationists did not fully oppose the League except for mainly one Article. They did not want the United States going to war defending another League member without Congress's permission, as was stipulated by Article X. They wanted that article removed before ratification.

Women

Thousands of American ________ took vacated jobs and became involved in industrial production as well as volunteer agencies at home and abroad.

blacks

During the war, _______ left their traditional homes in the South and migrated North for job opportunities in the war industries. About 500,000 they migrated North during the war. Led to racial tension and violence in the North. This growing concentration of them led to the Harlem Renaissance.

126,000

During World War I, military casualties alone accounted for just over 8.5 million deaths on both sides. Russia and Germany by far lost the most men at 1.7 million killed each. In comparison, the United States lost only __________ men. In all, over 21 million men were injured during the war.

Model T Ford

The 1920s were a time of excitement and prosperity. The stock market was booming, cars like the __________ were now affordable, and modern culture was in full swing.

"Rhapsody in Blue"

The 'anthem' of the 1920s, a piece of jazz music entitled_____________ by George Gershwin, epitomized the age. Other musical notables -- Louis Armstrong, "Duke" Ellington, and Bessie Smith - became popular.

Charles Lindbergh and Spirit of St. Louis

He was the cultural hero of the 1920s and was the first person to make a nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic. In his single engine plane, named __________, he flew from New York City to Paris.

The "Lost Generation"

Authors felt that there was a "moral loss of aimlessness" with WWI having destroyed the idea that if you acted virtuously, god things would happen. This period of time instead, saw good men go off to war and come back in body bags, and felt that the moral guideposts that had previously worked to define 'good' and 'bad' were now gone

'lost generation'

F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, and John Dos Passos were the most famous ______________ writers.

Gertrude Stein

The phrase "Lost Generation", which was initially coined by a female author named__________________, was used by Hemingway as an epigraph for his first novel, The Sun Also Rises, and that is why it 'stuck'.

Sinclair Lewis

Literature was also marked by writers who began to critique, quite openly, the notions of what it means to live in 'the middle class.' The vision of life in the middle class that had been idealized by some in the Gilded Age began to be criticized by others. Perhaps the most famous author in this genre was _____________.

Babbitt and Main Street

Sinclair Lewis wrote two novels entitled ___________ and ____________, in which he critiqued the so-called 'good life' for its vacuous attitude and elitism.

Nobel Prize lecture

Sinclair Lewis lamented that America is "the most contradictory, the most depressing, the most stirring, of any land in the world today"."in America most of us — not readers alone, but even writers — are still afraid of any literature which is not a glorification of everything American, a glorification of our faults as well as our virtues," in what speech?

"The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock"

The shortest and best example of the kind of middle-class ennui and desperation of modernism is exemplified in the poem, ________________ written by American poet T.S. Eliot in 1919.

Harlem Renaissance

In the 1920s, a burst of creativity in African-American literature, music and art was known as the.

Langston Hughes Zora Neal Hurston

Poet _____________ and author _________________ are among this movement's most prominent literature figures.

Jacob Lawrence

The Harlem Renaissance also encompassed jazz and blues music and a flowering of art, with _________________ as the most famous black artist of the time period.

Women of the 1920s

They were the age of the flapper, with her short bobbed hair, dress with fringes, flat chest, and of course, her ubiquitous cigarette. She tended to listen to jazz, drink in speakeasies, and danced the Charleston. She was the opposite of the Victorian woman in every way, and her 'liberation' (coming as it did on the heels of the passage of the 19th amendment.

New Woman

During the 1920s changes in postwar behavior had a liberating effect on this group. They were noticed more for their sex appeal and presented as thus in the advertising industry. The burden of domestic chores was alleviated with new technology, while women themselves turned to a more liberated attitude.

Flappers

Women who would leave their boot flaps open became the stereotype of a woman in the 1920s. Independent and representing the rebellious youth of the age, they were usually characterized by "bobbed" hair, dangling cigarette, short skirt, and heavy make-up.

Henry Ford

The great innovator of the era, was also a proponent of anti-semitism. His book, The International Jew, was admired by Hitler and became a bestseller in Nazi Germany. Ford, in turn, greatly admired Hitler once he came to power in the 1930s.

Nativism

The 1920s saw a period of 'backlash' against immigrants, blacks, and anyone else considered to be 'other.' In the 1920s, anarchists and communist sympathizers ranked at the top of the government's 'most dangerous' lists, and numerous First Amendment rights were squelched in order to give government the power to fight 'the enemy within.'

Palmer Raids

1919-1921; A series of office raids initiated by Attorney Alexander Palmer where all 'leftists' were targeted. Italian anarchists were high on the list of dangerous groups, and this led to anti-Italian sentiment.

Sacco and Vanzetti

The trial between two Italian men who were found guilty of committing a robbery, but their conviction was based more on anti-Italian and anti-anarchist sentiment than it was on the facts of the case (it remains unclear whether they were innocent or guilty). The two were electrocuted for their crimes.

Immigration Restrictions

These were put on certain immigrants (Irish, Italians, Asians), and eugenics, the "science" of genes and race, and led to I.Q. tests for immigrants beginning in 1910 through the 1920's. President Coolidge, defending these restrictions, stated that, "America must be kept American."

Immigration Acts, Quota System:

In 1921 Congress limited annual immigration to about 350,000 people annually. In 1924, they limited the number to 164,000 people annually. This also restricted immigration to 2% of the total number of people who lived in the U.S. from their respective country since 1890 and completely rejected the immigration of Asians. The intent of these provisions was to reduce the immigration of foreign people in the United States.

KKK

This group that reemerged from Reconstruction days to become a full-fledged American movement. This 'second' movement of them began in Stone Mountain, GA.

media

The founding of the second Ku Klux Klan in 1915 demonstrated the new found power of modern mass ______.

The Birth of a Nation

1915, this film was released. It mythologized and glorified the Klan and depicted African-Americans as sexual predators and buffoons. It was the most popular film of the decade.

Leo Frank

a Jewish man in Marietta, was accused of the rape and murder of a young white girl, Mary Phagan. He was lynched against a backdrop of media frenzy.

Knights of Mary Phagan

The second Klu Klux Klan was founded with a new anti-immigrant and anti-Semitic agenda. The organizers originally called themselves _________________ and the new organization emulated the fictionalized version of the original Klan presented in The Birth of a Nation.

bootlegging and organized crime

The 1920s were an age of Prohibition (18th Amendment, repealed in 1932 by the 21st Amendment) and therefore, it became an age of __________ and ____________. The Mafia, headed by Al Capone, rose to power in this era.

The Scopes Trial, 1925

Dayton Tennessee: John S, a science teacher, is recruited to test a Tennessee law that bans evolution. Clarence Darrow is attorney for the defense, and William Jennings Bryan, now an old man, is attorney for the prosecution. The case becomes known as "The Monkey Trial". In the end, Scopes is found guilty and given a $100 fine, but he is exempted from Jail. The trial, known as the trial of the century, encapsulates the era.

Republican

The 1920s is marked by a string of _____________ (which party?) Presidents. As a group, they believe in laissez-faire economics, side with big business against worker rights, and tend towards isolationism in foreign affairs.

Warren G. Harding Election (1920)

The democrats nominated James M. Cox and Franklin D. Roosevelt for his running mate. Republicans chose Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio and Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts. Harding sensed popular longing for calm and won in a landslide victory. Warren G. Harding called for a return to "normalcy," and this term came to symbolize, to powerful businessmen, the immediate abandonment of the foreign and domestic policies of Wilson. It also meant a return to high protective tariffs and a reduction in taxes.

Teapot Dome Scandal, 1921

Harding's term was marked by scandal. In this event, Secretary of the Interior Fall leased government oil reserves in Wyoming to the president of the Mammoth Oil Company. All suspects evaded prosecution, but the event tainted Harding's administration.

Chief Justice Taft

Was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1921. Under his jurisdiction, the Supreme Court overturned many progressive reform measures that were opposed by popular business interests. An example of this was the 1919 federal law imposing taxes on the products of child labor that he overturned.

Coolidge

In 1923, President harding died of a heart attack and Vice-President _____________ takes the presidential oath. Dubbed, 'Silent Cal,' he was known for being a man of few words. As president, he held an antipathy to progressivism, believed the government had no obligation in protecting citizens against natural disasters, and warned of "the tyranny of bureaucratic regulation and control." he easily won the election of 1924.

Disarmament

The new weapons unleashed during World War I led politicians in the United States to call for a new era of _______________ during the 1920s.

Washington Disarmament Conference

Also called the Washington Naval Conference it convened during 1921-1922. At the conference, called by the United States, the issue of the arms race and the idea of keeping peace on the Pacific Ocean were discussed. From this conference came the ideal of setting a standard on the desired tonnage that each nation should have, and the desired amount of battleships that each nation should have.

Kellogg-Briand Treaty

This treaty of 1928 denounced war between countries when it was used for the purpose of handling relations between countries. It sought to bring about a change in the way countries dealt with foreign policy, but is often ridiculed for its overly idealistic approach.

buying on margin

The 1920s had been characterized by exceptional economic growth and expansion of the middle class. However, too much of the economic expansion had been based on this in the stock market. and 'buying on credit' in the marketplace.

Tariff of 1922 and "rugged individualism"

From the early 1920s onward, the general policy of the federal government favored big business over labor protections and product regulation. The 1920s were an age of tariffs and isolationism, as seen in the ___________________, and it was an age that promoted _________________ in which citizens were expected to rise to the top without federal aid and without governmental protections should illness, bad luck, or other catastrophes befall them.

The Fordney-McCumber Tariff

1922; This tariff rose the rates on imported goods in the hopes that domestic manufacturing would prosper. The goal of this tariff was to push foreign competition out of the way of American markets and after an isolationist principle was introduced, the U.S. would become self sufficient.

"rugged individualism"

The ideal quality which every American should possess, _____________________ meant people who were self made individuals, who could handle the pressures given by a damaged society, and who would rise above them in order to succeed. These ideas were encompassed in Hoover's book.

Herbert Hoover

The 1928 presidential election was a classic example of the decade's monumental clash of ideologies. The Republicans ran _________________, a competent but mild mannered and unexciting candidate, and the Democrats ran Al Smith, a brash and brusque Irish Catholic Governor from New Yorker. The Republican was elected, with supporters viewing him as the "safer" choice. He was also seen as a president who would further boost the nation's growing prosperity because of his inclination in favor of big business

Great Depression

During Hoover's term of office, came the onset of the ______________ and the ensuing struggle of the government to relieve Americans and recover the economy. Unfortunately for Hoover, his ideologies and legislation were not effective in restoring prosperity to the nation, and what little he did, he did too late.

The Stock Market Crash

Americans were overleveraged in the market, and the "irrational exuberance" of the decade drove stock prices well above their true worth. Add this to a growing housing bubble, with homeowners routinely borrowing more than their houses actually were worth. Ultimately, this was caused by a number of ailments, including unregulated trade within the process of buying stocks, and a housing bubble that led to bank foreclosures all over the nation.

Black Tuesday

Name of this day:

Oct 29, 1929 the great stock market crash

...

Black Thursday

marks the start of the Great Depression

Great Depression

The stock market crash, the inflation in agriculture, the uncontrolled policies of the stock market, the overproduction of goods by industries, the loss of enthusiasm directed at the consumer products that were being produced and a loss of mirth in the economy created a no buying situation.

England

The depression soon became an international event; the devastating effects that the Depression had on America led to a spiral of depressions sprung up all over Europe. America could not keep up with international trading, thus further deepening the problem. The areas hardest hit was __________ for it depended greatly on U.S. exports.

Trickle-Down

An economic notion that the government should only get involved in the economy by pumping money into it, thus creating a surplus supply of money that would eventually "trickle" down onto the rest of society. Hoover believed that giving money directly to citizens hard hit by the economy would stifle initiative.

'hands off'

Hoover's response was hampered by his ideological inclinations and failure to recognize the extent of the problem until it was too late. He initially took a _____________ approach, reading the depression as part of a natural economic cycle of boom and bust, and when his government did contemplate action, Hoover's response was hampered by his ideological inclinations and failure to recognize the extent of the problem until it was too late.

Hoovervilles and Hoover Flags

What the public perceived as Hoover's cold indifference to their plight led to shantytowns being renamed ________________ and empty pockets renamed _________________.

Bonus Army

By the end of Hoover's term, Hoover even managed to alienate World War I veterans, who marched on Washington in 1932 as a group called the ______________. When these veterans, who were asking for an increase in pensions, reached the White House, Hoover used excessive force to disband the protest. His popularity plummeted as a result.

Reconstruction Finance Corp., (RFC):

Created under the presidency of Herbert Hoover, was designed to give out loans to banks, railroads, and monopolistic companies in order to pump money back into the economy during the years of the Depression.

Federal Home Loan Act

In 1931 under Hoover, the five man Home Loan Board was created and the creation of banks to handle home mortgages provided money to homeowners that needed loans.

National Credit Corporation

Created in 1931, under the persuasion of Herbert Hoover, it got the largest banks in the country, at that time, to provide lending agencies that would be able to give banks, on the brink of foreclosure, money that could be used for loans.

Emergency Committee for Employment

Was created in 1930 under the presidency of Herbert Hoover. The goal for the committee was to coordinate efforts between other agencies in order to provide relief for the massive unemployed during the years of the Great Depression.

Hoover Dam and Hawley-Smoot Tariff

Hoover also pumped money into the country with his massive federal project, the _______________________, and he tried to stimulate manufacturing by passing a tariff even more restrictive than the Tariff of 1922. However, neither of these measures were enough to pull the nation out of depression; in fact, many economists believe that the ________________________ made the worldwide depression even worse.

Hoover Dam

Originally called Boulder Dam, it stands 726 feet high and 1244 feet wide. Located on the Colorado River in Arizona, provides flood control, electricity, and irrigation for farms. It was constructed from 1931-1935 and began operations in 1936.

The Hawley-Smoot Tariff

1930; Raised protective tariffs on the United States. It pushed rates on imported goods to the highest point they've ever been, continuing the isolationist trend of the 1920s.

Franklin D. Roosevelt

In the Election of 1932, the Republican candidate was Hoover and the Democratic one was ___________________. The issue was ending the Great Depression. Hoover's platform was to increase the government's role in the economy; Roosevelt's message was "Pay attention to the forgotten man at the bottom of the economy." The democratic candidate won by a large margin, with a significant percentage of African-Americans voting for him. This election marks the shift of black voters away from the "party of Lincoln."

radio and "fireside chats."

Herbert Hoover was deeply unpopular in large part because he was seen as 'out of touch' with the cares and concerns of ordinary Americans. Roosevelt, in contrast, made effective communication his first priority, utilizing the ____________ to promote his political agenda. During the first hundred days of Franklin Roosevelt's first term in office Roosevelt held informal radio conversations every so often that were dubbed ____________. The topic discussed was the economy that had been plagued by the depression, and the means that were going to be taken in order to revive it. (Presidents, to this very day, have continued the tradition of giving weekly addresses to the public on the radio).

"Brain Trust"

Roosevelt built a team of advisers, beyond the cabinet, that were known as his ___________. This group comprised of both liberals and conservatives, helped in his decision making process.

Frances Perkins

Roosevelt also appointed the first woman to a Cabinet position, ______________ as Secretary of Labor. She was a social reformer, strengthening the Department of Labor, and developing the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Social Security Act, and the Fair Labor Standards Act (1938).

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Roosevelt wife (and distant cousin) Eleanor Roosevelt also served as a "non-official" member of his Cabinet, fighting for women and minority rights and authoring books, including the _________________________.

John Maynard Keynes

Roosevelt was deeply influenced by _________________, a University if Chicago economist who theorized that the relationship between supply and demand was critical: when the demand doesn't meet expectations there is unemployment and depression, while if demand surpasses production inflation occurs.

Keynesian Economics and Deficit Spending

_______________ demands that, in a depression, the government spend lots and maintain low taxes. This depends on _______________, a condition in which the government spends more than in takes in.

"pump-priming"

Roosevelt also believed in a theory called, ______________, in which the government pumps money directly to the poor and unemployed so that they could buy more products.

relief, recovery, reform

Roosevelt's three R's

Emergency Congress

Franklin Roosevelt was inaugurated on March 4, 1933, pledging to do his utmost in his first '100 Days' of office to stop the spiraling depression. He created the _______________________ to pass a series of laws in the first Hundred Days (March 9-June 16, 1933)

bank holiday

The first thing Roosevelt did was to create a ____________, shutting down all federal banks so that money could be deposited in them. Then, he passes the following banking and money acts.

Emergency Banking Relief Act

1933; Gave the president power to regulate banking transactions and to reopen only solvent banks.

Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act, 1933.

The act itself made 750 million dollars that had once been kept in the governments gold reserves now able to be used in the creation of loans to private businesses.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

Insured individual bank deposits up to $5,000, ending the epidemic of bank failures.

Employment Aid

In 1930, one year after the stock market crash, the unemployment rate was about 8%. By 1933, it had jumped to 25%, with a rate even higher among African-Americans. To combat this tide of joblessness, FDR created

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

This program sent 3 million young men to government camps on federally owned land, to do useful work including reforestation, swamp drainage, flood control, and trail building.

Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA)

Led by social worker Harry Hopkins, this group dispersed payments to the states to pay for state-level work projects. It allocated $500 million to relieve cities and states.

National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)

Focused on fighting unemployment and regulating unfair business practices. It pumped money into the job market and created codes of ethics for businesses.

Civilian Works Administration (CWA)

A "make-work" program created to ease suffering during the winter of 1933-34.

Dust Bowl

Farmers had it very hard in the 1930s. Not only were they affected by the nationwide Great Depression they also had a high foreclosure rate and unusually bad draught condition. This created the _____________, which lasted from 1933-1938 and was especially bad in Missouri, Texas, Kansas, Arkansas and Ohio.

Okies

The Dust Bowl forced 350,000 migrants, often called ________, to pick up and relocate. Ordinary citizens also could not keep up with their mortgage payments, having borrowed more during the 1920 building boom than they could afford.

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)

Provided money to farmers to help meet mortgage payments. Also paid farmers NOT to plant crops, to stop problems related to overproduction leading to low crop prices. As a result of the limits put on the planting of crops, farm prices eventually rose.

Farm Credit Administration

This was designed to help rural Americans refinance their farmland; it also helped to restore the livelihood that was missing in agriculture.

Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC)

Provided money to non-farm homes, and was aimed at helping the middle class.

Public Works Administration (PWA)

Headed by Harold Ickes, the Secretary of Interior, the PWA was a governmental agency that spent $4 billion on 34,000 public works projects including dams, bridges, and public buildings.

Harold Ickes

The Public Works Administration was headed by _____________.

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