What is job analysis and what is its significance?
Gathering and analyzing information about the human, content, and context requirements of a job. It is important because its the building block of HR management
Task-based Job Analysis
Most common form of job analysis, focuses on the tasks and duties and responsibilities of the job
Tasks vs. Duties vs. Responsibilities
Tasks are distinct work activities, a duty is a group of tasks, responsibilities is the obligation to those tasks and duties
The Competency Approach
Considers how the knowledge and skills are used, includes technical/behavioral competencies
Two types of job analysis
Specific knowledge and skills employees have
Examples of behavioral competencies
How do you know whether to use task based job analysis or competency based analysis?
It depends on the nature of jobs and how jobs are changing
What are some advantages to task based analysis?
It can provide (more tangible) defense for things like compensation, selection and training when legal action is taken by employees
Steps in Job Analysis Process
1. Planning the job analysis
2. Preparing for job analysis
3. Conducting the analysis
4. Developing job description
5. Maintaining/updating job description
Why should HR write the job description vs managers?
•The format of the description needs to be consistent
•Peoples writing skills vary
•Managers may personalize the description to themselves rather than what job requires
Alternatives to conducting a job analysis
•Computerized data gathering
Observation (job analysis) limitations
Jobs may not have duties that are easily observable, best for repetitive jobs
What is work sampling?
A type of observation analysis that uses statistical sampling so that the manager doesn't need continuous observation
Who are Subject Matter Experts (SMEs)
A team that has varying insights about a group of jobs, that provide job analysis info
What are the advantages of using questionnaires?
•It's widely used
•information on a large number of jobs can be collected
•Short amount of time
What are Position Analysis Questionnaires (PAQ)?
A specialized instrument that incorporates checklists, focuses on behavioral competencies
What are the advantages of Position Analysis Questionnaires?
•They are easily quantifiable
•Can be used to conduct validity studies on selection tests
•Contributes to internal pay fairness
How do Functional Job Analysises work?
Its a comprehensive analysis made by the govment. Job descriptions are made by examining data, people and things
Why can job analysis be considered a concern for employees?
Because it identifies the difference between whats currently being done in a job and what should be done
A concern that job analysis will unrealistically limit managerial (duty) flexibility
What is a Miscellaneous clause in a job description?
A statement used to capture any other duties that might be needed in the job, it is not included as an essential function under the ADA
What does the ADA require of businesses in the job description?
Identification of the essential job functions: fundamental duties of the job
Characteristics of an essential job function
•20% or more of time is spent
•Interrelated to other job tasks
Characteristics of a marginal job function
•10% or less of time is spent on
•Unrelated to job
What are the FLSA guidelines about overtime pay?
Overtime is paid to employees for work over 40 hrs a week, exempt employees are usually white collar jobs
Job specifications are usually listed include:
•Physical requirements/working conditions
Sections of the Job Description
•Essential job functions
•Disclaimer (miscellaneous clause)