What a learning experience is called when provided by a experimenter
Reflexes that are inborn, unlearned, species reflexes
Reflexes that are acquired, learned, or individual
Why are unconditional stimuli so effective in garnering a response?
They are usually events that are important to survival
pairing a neutral stimulus with a well-established CS
Name ways to measure Pavlovian learning
1) latency: interval between onset of CS and appearance of CR.
2) frequency; use test trials in which CS is presented alone without US every now and then
3) intensity: amplitude of the CR (e.g. more saliva)
CS ends before US presented
US overlaps CS before CS disappears
Differences between short-delay and long-delay procedures in delayed conditioning?
1. short-delay = 1ms to 3 s after CS before US appears, long-delay = 3 s to 3 mins.
2.In long delay, CR latency increases until CR does not appear until just before onset of the US because the lasting time of the CS becomes the CS itself.
Aspects of simultaneous conditioning
1. rare in natural environment
2. weak procedure for establishing CR
Link contingency to learning
rate of conditioning varies with the degree of CS-US contingency.
Link interstimulus interval ISI to continguity
continguity in Pavlovian conditioning is the interval between the CS and US aka the ISI itself
How do you measure ISI for 4 types of conditioning?
1. trace: interval between end of CS and onset of US
2. delayed: interval between onset of CS and onset of US
What is the relationship of ISI and rate of conditioning?
1. shorter interval between CS and US means quicker conditioning
2. kinds of response require different optimum delays
3. short intervals more important in trace condtioning than delayed conditioning
strong stimuli overpowers a compound stimulus nd becomes the CS alone
What is the ability of a stimulus to become a CS in relation to the US
Works best when both CS and US are internal receptors or both affect external receptors
What is the optimum intertrial intervals
20-30 seconds or more. longer intervals are more effective than shorter intertrial intervals
Name factors of the test subject that affect conditioning
1. age: older learn slower
2. temperament: exciable learned faster
3. stress: facilitates learning
What does it mean fr a CR to be extinguished.
As a result of extinction, CS appearing without US, the CR no longer occurs.
Is it easier or harder to bring back an extinguished CR?
An extinguished CR usually can be reestablished far more readily than it was established initially.
Pavlov's theory of conditioning
stimulus-substitution: new neuoroligical connection between CS and US and excite the same area of the brain
Problems wiht Pavlov's stimulus substitution theory
1. CR and UR are not always the same because CR is usually weaker and less reliable and appears more slowly
2. CR is sometimes the opposite of the UR
3. cannot explain blocking, latent inhibition, and extinction
How does the Rescorla Wagner model accountfor blocking?
By the time CS2 comes into play, all the learning has already taken place with CS1
Weaknesses of Rescoral-Wagner model
1. does not acocunt for laten inhibition
2. cannot used to predict experiment findings because cannot specificy in advance the value of c (determined experimentally)
Who was the first person to stdudy human emotions
1. Etes and Skinner
1. Conditioned suppression
2. prejudiced word associations
3. cobranding of products
4. familiar music and appeal of products
5. toothpaste and pleasant scenes
6. food aversion
7. chemotherapy taste aversion
8. conditioned immunosuppression