Pharmacology Exam Two A

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Catecholamines:

Fight-or-flight hormones released by the adrenal glands in response to stress; they are part of the sympathetic nervous system

Sympathetic NS activates:

The ___ __ ___ pupil dilation, increased sweating, increased heart rate and increased blood pressure.

Fight or Flight:

The sympathetic Nervous System

Adrenergic Agents:

Drugs that stimulate the Sympathetic Nervouse System

Adrenergic Drugs:

Mimic the effects of SNS neurotransmitters norepinephrine, epinephrine & dopamine.

A1 adrenergic receptors:

___ ___ ___ are located on smooth muscles, such as blood vessels and result in vasoconstriction and CNS stimulation.

B1 andrenergic receptors:

Primarily located in the heart, and increase the heart rate and force of contraction, as well as increasing the conduction of nerve impulses.

B 2 adrenergic receptors:

Known as Bonchi & Babies.
Located in smooth muscle fibers fo the bronchioles, arterioles and visceral organs.
Relaxation: Bronchodilation and uterus contractions

Nasal decongestants:

Vasoconstrict nasal mucosa, decreasing blood flow, thereby decreasing congestion.

Ophthalmic decongestants:

___ ___ cause arteriolar vasoconstriction, reducing conjunctival compression, redness.

Some A1 adrenergic drugs:

naphazoline, phenylephrine, tetrahydrozoline, pseudoephedrine.

Naphazoline:

Clear eyes

Phenylephrine:

Neo-Synephrine

Tetrahydrozoline:

Murine, or visine

Pseudoephedrine:

Sudafed

Norepinephrine ( Lovophed ):

____ (____) is an A1 receptor rescue drug used for shock & hypotension, causing systemic vasoconstriciton.

A1 receptors:

___ ____ cause vasoconstriction of the blood vessels.

B1 receptors:

Rescue Drugs; used to support the heart during cardiac failure or shock.

Albuterol:

Asthma Rescue medicine

Epinephrine:

Asthma 911 med; mixture of alpha one and beta two

Levalbuterol (Xopenex):

Inhalation bronchodilator

Salmeterol (Advair)

Asthma maintenance

Terbutaline (brethine):

___ ( ___ ) assists with uterine relaxation-stops labor

Vasoconstriction:

Activation of A1 receptor causes ____

Vasodilation:

Blocking of A1 receptor causes _____, except in the brain & uterus, where it vasocontricts

Alpha Blockers:

____ ____ Treats hypertension by causing both arterial and venous dilation, reducing peripheral vascular resistance and bp.

Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy:

Alpha blockers effect receptors on prostrate gland, decreasing bladder resistance to urinary outflow.

Phentolamine (regitine):

___ ( ___ ) Vasodilation; controls and prevents hypertension.

Pheochromocytoma:

Tumor on adrenal gland that secrets norepinephrine.

Phentolamine (Regitine):

___ ( ___ ) quickly reverses vasoconstrictive effects of extravasated vasopressors: norepinephrine or epinephrine.

Prazosin (minipress):

____ ( ___ ) is an Alpha blocker that causes vasodilation to decrease blood pressure & urinary obstruction w/BPH.

Tamsulosin (Flomax):

____ ( ___ ) is an Alpha blocker that causes vasodilation to decrease blood pressure & urinary obstruction w/BPH

BPH:

Benign prostatic hypertrophy-enlargement of prostrate gland

Inotrope:

An agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions. Negatively inotropic agents weaken the force of muscular contractions. Positively inotropic agents increase the strength of muscular contraction.

Increases:

Activation of B1 receptors ____ the heart rate and force of contraction.

Decreases:

Blocking of B1 receptors ____ the heart rate and foce of contraction.

Heart; cardioselective:

Beta 1 receptors are located primarily on the _____; Beta-blockers selective for these receptors are called ______ beta-blockers.

Smooth muscles; blood vessels:

Beta 2 receptors are located primarily on ____ ____ of bronchioles and ____ ____.

Nonspecific:

_____ beta-blockers block both B1 and B2 receptors.

Metoprolol:

_____ (lopressor) is a cardioselective Beta blocker, given post MI.

Acebutolol:

____ (sectral) treats angina, hypertension, & dysrhthmias.

Catecholamines:

Cardioselective B-Blockers, such as metoprolol & acebutolol, block the action of ____ on the B1 receptor; cardiac effects w/out constriction of bronchi.

Relaxation:

Activation of B2 adrenergic receptors causes ____.

Blocking:

_____ of B2 Adrenergic receptors causes constriction.

B1; B2:

Nonspecific B-blockers block both ____ and ____ receptors.

Blocking Agents:

When using Adrenergic ____ _____, assess for COPD, hypotnesion, cardiac dysrhythmias, bradycardia, and heart failure.

Beta blockers:

Patients taking ____ ____ need to check apical pulse for one minute and blood pressure.

Rest; digest:

The Parasympathetic NS is where ___ and ____ occurs.

Direct Acting; cholinergic:

____ ____ cholinergic agonists bind to ____ recpetors, activating them.

Indirect acting; enzyme:

___ ___ cholinergic agonists inhibit the ____ cholinesterase which breaks down acetylcholine.

Stimulate; increased:

Cholinergic drugs ____ the intestine and bladder, resulting in ____ gastric secretions, gastrointestinal motility & urinary frequency.

Cholinergic:

_____ drugs stimulate the pupils and increase salivation and sweating.

Miosis:

Pupil constriction.

Cholinergic:

___ drugs decrease the heart rate.

Cholinergic:

____ drugs cause bronchial constriction.

Acetylcholine, carbachol, pilocarpine:

___, ___, & ____ are used in glaucoma and intraocular surgery to reduce pressure.

Bethanechol; Urecholine:

____ ( ____ ) treats atony and neurogenic bladder, by increasing the tone and motility of bladder and GI tract.

Pyridostigmine; physostigmine:

____ & ____ are indirect acting cholinergic agents that cause skeletal muscle contractions, such as those associated with myasthenia gravis.

Myasthenia Gravis:

____ ____ is a neuromuscular disorder that causes weakness of the voluntary (skeletal) muscles.

Physostigmine:

____ is an antidote for anticholinergice poisoning .

Negative:

_____ inotropic agents weaken the force of muscular contractions.

Positive:

_____ inotropic agents increase the strength of muscular contraction.

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