___ ___ of the hip is caused by lax ligaments making the hips dislocatable.
The etiology of DDH of multifactorial and can be either physiologic or ___ (packaging).
The Barlow (most important) and Ortanlani test hip ___.
1 in every ___ newborns have unstable hips, but only 1 in 1000 develop persistent conditions.
Dislocatable or ___ hips fit the criterion for developmental dysplasia of the hip.
Typical dislocations happen in ___ infants with DDH, teratologic dislocations are due to a birth defect
Factors associated with ___ (abv) are first born, breach, girls to boy 2:1, FH, and positioning.
Most important DDH test where 90 degree flexed hip is dislocated with posterior pressure = ___.
Reverse Barlow test, may not work until months after birth = ___ test.
Asymmetric skin ___ may indicate DHH (Galeazzi test) due to shortened femur.
Babies hips should be able to be abducted down 90 deg., limited hip abduction is < than ___ degrees.
Radiology is not ___ in diagnosing DDH due to incomplete bone ossification after birth.
Use ___ as diagnostic imaging for DDH when breach or FH of condition.
Need a ___ consult to fit harness, cast, or perform surgery when presented with DDH in newborns
____ is the complication of untreated DDH.
___ of the hip is the underlying justification of harnesses, casts, and surgery in DDH.
Toxic ___ of the hip or transient monarticular synovitis occurs in kindergarten boys (2:1)
Monoarticular synovitis of the hip (toxic tenosynovitis) S&S is pain, limping, and no fever is ___ in origin.
Viral ____ often precedes toxic tenosynovitis of the hip.
Must rule out ___ cause, so Monoarticular synovitis of the hip is one of exclusion.
Bed rest and minimize ___ activities for two weeks; Tx pain Sx with NSAIDS.
Joint aspirations are ___ in Toxic tenosynovitis of the hip.
___ ___ Perthes disease is avascular necrosis of the femoral head (capital femoral epiphysis).
Legg-Calve-Perthes affects ___ grade boys (5:1) and although idiopathic, may be growth related
Thigh pain or painless limp is S&S of ___; Short stature, decreased ROM, and thigh atrophy.
Thigh pain or painless limp is S&S of legg-Calve; ___ stature, decreased ROM, and thigh atrophy.
Thigh pain or ___ limp is S&S of Legg-Clave; Short stature, decreased ROM, and thigh atrophy.
Thigh pain or painless limp is S&S of Legg-Calve; Short stature, decreased ROM, and thigh ___.
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis occurs in ____ age (usually obese) boys and is most common hip d/o.
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis occurs in teen age (usually ___) boys and is most common hip d/o.
Complication of slipped capital femoral epiphysis is ___ and chonrolysis.
Tx for slipped capital femoral epiphysis is surgical ___, realignment, and hip Spica cast.
SCFE (slipped capital femoral epiphysis)
Mild discomfort of the hip in teens that lasts for several months may be stable ___.
Teens with unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis are unable to ___ weight.
SCFE (slipped capital femoral epiphysis)
Sudden inability to hold weight, month-long Sx of hip pain, limp, and pigeon toe gait = ____.
Femoral ___ is most common pigeon toe cause in children in their terrible two's and up.
Egg-beater gain, kissing kneecaps, and internal rotation are Sx of ___ caused by ligament laxity.
Femoral anteversion ___ after child is 6 years old; No Tx necessary.
Internal ___ occurs in children younger than 2 yo as a result of intra-utero positioning.
Internal tibial torsion occurs in children younger than ___ yo as a result of intra-utero positioning.
Internal tibial torsion occurs in children younger than 2 yo as a result of intra-___ positioning.
Tx for tibial torsion is ___; refer if condition persists past age 2.
Thigh-foot ___ technique can distinguish tibial torsion as cause of in stepping.
Knock-knee'd, or ___, typically occurs in head-start age kids and resolves on its own.
Knock-knee'd, or genu valgum, typically occurs in ___ age kids and resolves on its own.
On its own
Knock-knee'd, or genu valgum, typically occurs in head-start age kids and resolves ___.
Bowlegged, or ____, typically occurs at birth, and resolved by age 2.
Bowlegged, or genu varum, typically occurs at ___, and resolved by age 2.
Bowlegged, or genu varum, typically occurs at birth, and resolved by age ___.
Tibia Vara is a ___ form of genu varum and must be ruled out of differential diagnosis.
Tibia ___, a pathological form of genu varum, is the most common form and usually bilateral (80%).
Tibia Vara is defined as an abnormal growth of the ____ shaft of the tibia.
Newborns have internally rotated (anteversion) tibia and femur of ___ degrees which decreases with age.
Patellofemoral syndrome affects ___ aged ___ (athletes)
Although idiopathic, patellofemoral syndrome is pain in the anterior ___ that worsens (grinds) w/ activity.
Muscle ___ and ROM exercises, NSAIDS, and ice are Tx for patellofemoral syndrome.
Osgood-schlatter diseases is benign and is characterized by swelling of the ___.
Microfractures and partial avulsions are thought to be the cause of ___.
Osgood-schlatter diseases affects ___ boys and girls after puberty.
Rest and activity ___ are Tx for Osgood-schlatter.
Club foot is called ___ and may be either congenital, teratologic, or packaging.
Talipes equinovarus affects ___ age babies at a rate of 1 in 1000, and is bilateral half the time.
Hypoplastic foot and leg muscles leads to limb ___, atrophy of the muscles, and foot shortening.
A rigid, ___ forefoot and an equine and varus hindfoot characterize Talipes equinovarus.
Surgery or serial ___ is Tx for Talipes equinovarus.
Metatarsus adductus can be seen with co-occurring ___ of the hip in infants.
Metatarsus adductus occurs ___ in infant boys than girls.
Metatarsus adductus affects both legs, ___ of the time.
Most common foot d/o in infants = ___.
Metatarsus adductus only affects the ___ of the foot, and occurs because of in utero positioning.
Metatarsus adductus only affects the front of the foot, and occurs because of ___ positioning.
90% resolve ___ and no x-rays are needed.
Metatarsus adductus is classified in three types, I through III according to ___.
Hypermobile pes planus is ___ feet in infants but can't be diagnosed until age 6.
Hypermobile pes planus is flat feet in infants but can't be diagnosed until age ___.
Hypermobile pes planus children are usually ___ and can participate in age-appropriate activities.
If symptomatic, Tx hypermobile pes planus with a ___.
Ligament ___ is the underlying cause of flat feet in infants and children.
Watch to see if hypermobile ___ worsens when patient stands up vs. sitting down.
Peroneal spastic flat foot or tarsal ___ is a painful condition that may require casting or surgery.
Peroneal spastic flat foot or tarsal coalition is a ___ condition that may require casting or surgery.
Peroneal spastic flat foot or tarsal coalition is a painful condition that may require ___ or surgery.
Peroneal spastic flat foot or tarsal coalition is a painful condition that may require casting or ___.
Weight-bearing ___ or CT are obtained to Dx tarsal coalition (spastic flat foot).
Two causes of cavus foot (increased arch) are ___ and neuromuscular (inherited).
Two causes of cavus foot (increased arch) are idiopathic and ___.
Cavus foot may be asymptomatic but ___ cause must be evaluated.
Tx for cavus foot is special ___ or surgery.
___ curve of the spine in the frontal plane ( coronal) = Scoliosis.
Lateral curve of the spine in the frontal plane ( coronal) = ___.
The cobb angle test connect the most ___ superior vertebrae and the most ___ inferior vertebrae with a line.
Four types of scoliosis = ____, congenital, neuromuscular, and syndromes.
20% of ___ scoliosis pt's have a family member with the condition.
Three age groups of idiopathic scoliosis = babies (3 or less), kids, and ___.
Red flags (refer) for scoliosis = ___, neuropathy, loss of B&B control, foot deformities.
Red flags (refer) for scoliosis = pain, ___, loss of B&B control, foot deformities.
Red flags (refer) for scoliosis = pain, neuropathy, loss of ___ control, foot deformities.
Asymmetric ___ and scapular winging indicates scoliosis.
Rub hump, bend over, leg length comparison, are all PE for ___.
Fusion and lack of segmentation of the vertebrae are ___ forms of scoliosis.
Most common age group for scoliosis = ___.
Abnormal vertebrae in the AP plane = ____ scoliosis.
70% of idiopathic scoliosis lack the Sx of ___.
If scoliosis is non-progressive, Tx = ___.
Severe scoliosis Tx = ____.
Moderate scoliosis Tx (20-50 degrees) = ___ Tx.
Convex left thoracic curve and deformed feet are scoliosis cases that need ___.
Nursemaids elbow is the ___ of the radial head as the annular ligament is torn.
Nurse maidens elbow occurs when holding a child's ___.
____ genu varum (Blount ) occurs more frequently in little fat black girl babies.
Radiographs are difficult to Dx pathologic genu varum before age ___.
Three main causes of pigeon in-toeing: ___, tibial, feet related.
Three main causes of pigeon in-toeing: Femoral, ___, feet related.
Three main causes of pigeon in-toeing: Femoral, tibial, and ___ related.
A kid guarding his pronated hand while refusing to move elbow is Sx of ___ elbow.
Hematogenus ___ is the most common organism responsible for osteomyelitis.
Inflammation Sx and focal tenderness over bone is S&S of ____.
Systemic Sx of ___ are fever, anorexia, arability, and lethargy.
Systemic Sx of osteomyelitis are ___, anorexia, arability, and lethargy.
Systemic Sx of osteomyelitis are fever, ___, arability, and lethargy.
Systemic Sx of osteomyelitis are fever, anorexia, ___, and lethargy.
Systemic Sx of osteomyelitis are fever, anorexia, arability, and ___.
3 large bones are most likely for osteomyelitis: ___, tibia, and humorous.
3 large bones are most likely for osteomyelitis: Femur, ___, and humorous.
3 large bones are most likely for osteomyelitis: Femur, tibia, and ___.
Tx for osteomyelitis = IV ___.
Bone ___ is cultured for organism ID and sensitivity in osteomyelitis.
Multiple fx's in child less than ___ yo is red flag for child abuse.
US and AP radiograph of the hip can ID ___ of the hip.
Pavlik harness is Tx for ___ of the hip.
Strep and H. Flu can also cause ___ of the bone.
Juvenile ___ is the most common chronic rheumatic disease in babies and pre-teens. (girls>boys)
Chronic, inflamed joint ___, fatigue, fever, weight loss are S&S of RA.
Butterfly rash and high autoimmune abs are S&S of ___.
Swelling and effusion with limited ROM commonly last longer than ___ weeks in juvenile RA.
SLE affected __ girls than boys.
NSAIDS and ____ are Tx for SLE.