Organically Based Speech Sound Disorders
have obvious structural or neurological etiology or cause.
are said to have no obvious known cause-- unknown origin or etiology.
your born with this or it develops early on -- usually before 12 months.
diseases you have from birth.
onset takes place much later in childhood or more often in adulthood. (e.g. traumatic brain injury, or stroke)
of unknown cause.
Lips and Tongue
damage to this part of the face may or may not have an effect on speech in terms of major structural variations of the speech mechanisms.
on this structure can be found: cleft repaired by 12 to 14 months; prosthetic dental appliance for patients who have survived cancer surgery; closes the opening.
can cause hyper-nasality and problems with sonorants; can reduce or diminish intraoral breath pressure during production of obstruents because the structure cannot build up intraoral pressure to make sounds in the oral cavity.
children born with cleft palates have a higher degree of this.
the valving that takes place to separate the nasal cavity from the oral cavity during non nasal speech production.
aka: denasality; when the nasopharynx or nasal cavity is obstructed during speech production. Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity or deviated septum can also cause this.
when removed could result in hyper-nasality, but if too large, it can cause hypo-nasality. These could also interfere with Eustachian Tube function and need to be removed.
this is considered a genetic syndrome; tongue seems large because of a smaller oral cavity resulting in reduced speech intelligibility in conversation. Causes reduced muscle tone and cognitive impairment.
Fragile X Syndrome
this is a genetic syndrome; may also have cognitive impairment that may lead to delayed speech sound acquisition and decrease intelligibility.
Motor Speech Disorders
these are disorders not only of articulation but also frequently involve other components of speech production such as phonation, respriation, and velopharyngeal function.
a motor speech problem caused by neuromuscular impairment. It is caused by a paralysis, weakness, or incoordination, of the speech musculature.
can involve disturbance in respiration, phonation, articulation, resonance and prosody.
motor speech disorder caused by brain damage; an impairment of the motor speech programming with no weakness, paralysis, or incoordination of the speech musculature.
symptoms include: highly variable articulation errors, groping, errors mostly on initial consonants - trouble with more complex sounds phonemes and clusters and longer more complex words. Name the disorder.
symptoms: muscle innervention problem; can affect entire speech mechanism; can cause paralysis or weakness. Name the disorder.
symptoms: problems with motor programming; and having articulators move to correct place at the correct time in the right sequence. Name the disorder.
can't make limbs function to do what you want them to do because your motor strip can't coordinate order of operations.
disorder in volitional oral nonspeech tasks. May or may not coexists with verbal apraxia. May have tongue protrusion.
symptoms: cannot move the tongue; difficulty in programming articulators to do non speech functions. Name the disorder.
Childhood Apraxia of Speech
considered a programming problem; patients have difficulty with violational or imitative production of speech sounds and sequences which may or may not be accompanied by oral apraxia.
consistent substitution and/or distortions on limited number of phonemes.
developmental phonological patterns.
Consistent Phonological Disorder
children who produce both developmental and non developmental patterns. The non developmental patterns are consistent.
Inconsistent Phonological Disorder
children who produce non-developmental error patterns but do so inconsistently; variations in repeated productions of the same word.
it's easier to say this is related to SSD rather than say it causes them. Very importatnt to stay on top of.
Auditory Discrimination Test
a test given when a child is not easily simulable for a sound; your own test given to see if your client hears the difference between sounds by using minimal pairs.
used when perceptual differences are present.
refers to the imperfect or irregular position of the teeth when jaws are closed.
term meaning tongue tied.
term meaning too large of a tongue.
term meaning too small of a tongue.
habitual or frequent resting or pushing of the tongue against the lingual surface area of the incisors or cuspids, or protrusion between the upper and lower anterior teeth.
also referred to as a tongue thrust swallow; can have one of three features: tongue tip contacting the lower lip, tongue forward during speech, or tongue forward at rest.
this disorder can cause malocclusion problems, alter the pattern of facial development, or cause articulation problems (frontal lisp) due to anterior tongue placement.
not strongly associated with SSD but combined with other factors this may result in a SSD.