Psychology Chapter 14

47 terms by tovaweiss26

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social psychologists

the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

attribution theory

the theory that we explain someones behavior by crediting either the situation or the persons disposition

fundamental attribution error

the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of the personal disposition

attitude

feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events

central route persuasion

attitude change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorablee thoughts

peripheral route persuasion

attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness

foot in the door phenomenon

the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with larger requests

role

a set of expectations about a social position, efining how those in the position ought to behave

cognitive dissonance theory

the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes

conformity

adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard

normative social influence

influence resulting from a persons desire to gain approval or avoid dissaproval

informational social influence

influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality

social facilitation

stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others

social loafing

the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable

deindividuation

the loss of self-awareness and self restraint occuring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity

group polarization

the enhancement of a groups prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group

groupthink

the mode of thinking hat occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives

culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

norm

an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior

personal space

the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies

prejudice

an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action

stereotype

a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people

discrimination

an unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members

ingroup

"Us"- people with whom we share a common identity

outgroup

"them"- those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup

ingroup bias

the tendency to favor our own group

scapegoat theory

the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame

other-race effect

the tendency to recall faces of ones own race more accurately than faces of other races aka cross-race effect and own-race bias

just-world phenomenon

the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get

aggression

any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy

frustration-aggression principle

the principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger, which can generate aggression

mere exposure effect

the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them

passionate love

an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another usually present at the beginning of a love relationship

companionate love

the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined

equity

a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it

self-disclosure

revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others

altruism

unselfish regard for the welfare of others

bystander effect

the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present

social exchange theory

the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs

reciprocity norm

an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them

social-responsibility norm

an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them

conflict

a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas

social trap

a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior

mirror-image perceptions

mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive

self-fulfilling prophecy

a belief that leads to its own fulfillment

superordinate goals

shared goals that override differences among people and require cooperation

GRIT

Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction- a strategy designed to decrease international tensions

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