Final HMNTR 210

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After digestion and absorption, which circulatory system carries fat and fat-soluble vitamins?

Lymphatic

The study of how food impacts health through its interaction with our genes and its subsequent effect on gene expression is called

nutrigenomics.

Which of the following are substances in plant foods that are not digested in the stomach or small intestine?

Dietary fiber

A function of the large intestine is to absorb

water and minerals.

Which of the following substances is primarily involved in the absorption of fat to facilitate its digestion?

Bile

The Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the National Academy of Sciences advocates that 10% to 35% of calories come from protein and ________________ from carbohydrate.

45% to 65%

The Dietary Guidelines were issued in response to

concerns regarding disease patterns in the United States.

What substances, present in fruits and vegetables, provide significant health benefits such as reducing the risk of cancer?

Phytochemicals

Viscous (soluble) fibers

can lower blood cholesterol.

The villi of the small intestine

provide an enormous surface area that facilitates absorption.

Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamins?

Enable chemical processes in the body

Which large blood vessel is the first to receive most recently eaten nutrients, transporting them to the liver?

Portal vein

The major storage sites for glycogen are

muscles and liver.

The term "simple carbohydrates" refers to

monosaccharides and disaccharides.

Measurements of height, weight, body circumferences, and body fat are called

anthropometry.

After absorption, galactose is converted to ________ in the liver.

glucose

What enzyme is responsible for carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine?

Pancreatic amylase

Which of the following hormones is released during stressful times to increase blood glucose levels, making more energy available for use?

Epinephrine

The glycemic load takes into account the glycemic index of the food and the amount of

carbohydrate consumed.

A reasonable and recommended goal for daily dietary fiber intake is how many grams?

25-35

Medical conditions related to metabolic syndrome are

Type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke.

In which form are most dietary lipids found?

Triglycerides

Which of the following is true about the fate of fatty acids after their absorption?

Shorter chain fatty acids of less than 12 carbons enter the blood and then the liver via the portal vein.

The major fat-digesting enzyme is

pancreatic lipase.

Which lipoprotein is responsible for picking up cholesterol from dying cells and other sources so it can be transported back to the liver for excretion?

High-density lipoprotein

To be transported throughout the body, fats are packaged in structures called

lipoproteins.

Which of the following is an essential fatty acid?

Linoleic

The chemical element found in all amino acids but not found in either carbohydrates or fats is

nitrogen.

This is true of low quality protein sources?

It lacks one or more essential amino acids, It cannot support body growth and maintenance by itself,To adequately meet protein needs from low quality protein sources, a person would have to eat two complementary proteins.

Proteins are digested in which areas of the body?

Stomach and small intestine

What enzyme is released by the stomach to digest protein?

Pepsin

If the carbohydrate content of the diet is insufficient to meet the body's needs for glucose, which of the following can be converted to glucose?

Amino acids

What is meant by the amino acid sequence of a protein?

Order of appearance of amino acids in the protein

Kwashiorkor usually is associated with a deficiency of

protein.

What is associated with an increase in basal metabolism?

An increase in body temperature, An increase in lean body mass, Caffeine use

All of the following contribute to total energy expenditure

basal metabolic rate, thermic effect of food, adaptive thermogenesis

The more practical method for determining energy expenditure in which the amount of oxygen a person uses is measured is called

indirect calorimetry.

Body weight in kilograms divided by height squared in meters yields

the body mass index.

The following statements are true about trans fat

Trans fat intake can increase the risk for CVD, Creation of a trans fat solidifies an lipid that once was a liquid at room temperature by a process of hydrogenation of the oil, Trans fat increases the shelf life of food

What is true about the regulation of fluid in the body?

Antidiuretic hormone is released to force the kidney to conserve water, There is a limit to how concentrated the kidney can make the urine, Even though the kidney can effectively conserve water, insensible water losses must be replenished.

What is the role of minerals in the body?

They make possible the transfer of nerve impulses, They are constituents of important body compounds, They help maintain water balance.

Which of the following is true about mineral bioavailability?

Minerals from animal products are better absorbed than those from plants.

What are some of the functions of calcium?

Muscle contraction, Blood clotting, Normal nerve transmission

Hypertension is defined as a systolic/diastolic blood pressure at or above ____ mm Hg

140/90

Which of the following is true about the absorption, transport, and storage of fat-soluble vitamins?

After absorption, they are transported in the bloodstream to body cells and/or stored in the liver and fatty tissue.

All of the following are true statements regarding fat malabsorption

results in decreased absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, increases the risk of fat-soluble vitamin deficiency, increases the risk of developing hypovitaminosis A, rickets, or osteomalacia.

Drying of the cornea due to vitamin A deficiency is called

xerophthalmia.

Dark green or orange vegetables and/or fruits are recommended at least every other day to provide a source of vitamin

A

All of the following are true about the toxicity of vitamin A

fetal malformation can occur, one is unlikely to get toxic doses from eating food, most adverse effects disappear after megadoses stop.

Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of

vitamin D.

Vitamin E functions as an

antioxidant

The nutrient essential for synthesis of several blood clotting factors is vitamin

K

Vitamins involved in red blood cell synthesis are

vitamin B12 and folate

Formation and maintenance of collagen requires

vitamin C.

The DASH diet plan is designed specifically to reduce the risk of

hypertension

Deficiency of which of the following minerals is associated with retarded growth and sexual development in children?

zinc

The conversion of glucose to lactic acid is called

anaerobic glucose breakdown

Aerobic glucose breakdown provides most of the energy for sports activities lasting

2 minutes to 4 hours.

Athletes who consume adequate carbohydrate promote all of the following

reducing the risk of chronic fatigue, loading the liver with adequate glycogen stores, loading the muscles with adequate glycogen stores.

Carbohydrate loading

involves a tapering in the intensity of workouts with a corresponding increase in the percentage of carbohydrate intake

The first trimester of pregnancy

is a time of particular importance to avoid nutritional deficiencies and insults to prevent harm to the fetus.

Extra calories for pregnancy are needed mostly during which trimester(s)?

Second and third

Popular and potentially useful nutritional interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder include all of the following

omega-3 fatty acid supplements, the gluten-free, casein-free diet, probiotics.

For a child who follows a totally vegetarian diet, all of the following nutrients are of concern

iron, vitamin B-12, vitamin D

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