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World Civilizations Fourth Edition AP Edition Chapter 24 Vocabulary and Key Terms

Mataram

Kingdom that controlled interior regions of Java in 17th century; Dutch East India Company paid tribute to the kingdom for rights of trade at Batavia; weakness of kingdom after 1670's allowed Dutch to exert control over all of Java

sepoys

Troops that served the British East India Company; recruited from various warlike peoples of India

British raj

The rule over much of South Asia between 1765 and 1947 by the East India Company and then by a British government.

Plassey (1757)

Battle between the troops of the British east India company and an Indian army under siraj-ud-daula, ruler of Bengal; British victory gave them control of northeast India

Robert Clive

British general and statesman whose victory at Plassey in 1757 strengthened British control of India (1725-1774)

presidencies

Three districts that made up the bulk of the directly ruled British territories in India; capitals at Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay

princely states

Ruled by Indian princes allied with the raj; agents of the east India company were stationed at their courts to ensure loyalty

nabobs

Name given to British representatives of the East India Company who went briefly to India to make fortunes through graft and exploitation

Ram Mohum Roy

Western-educated Indian leader, early 19th century; cooperated with British to outlaw sati

Lord Charles Cornwallis

the British general who commanded troops from Charleston, South Carolina. He surrendered his entire army to George Washington after the battle of Yorktown

Isandhlwana (1879)

Zulu defeat of a British army; one of the few indigenous victories over 19th-century European armies

tropical dependencies

Western European possessions in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific where small numbers of Europeans ruled large indigenous populations

White dominions

Colonies in which European settlers made up the overwhelming majority of the population; small numbers of native inhabitants were typically reduced by disease and wars of conquest; typical of British holdings in North America and Australia with growing independence in the 19th century

settlement colonies

Permanent colonies established through exploration or conquest for the purpose of occupying land and controlling labor

white racial supremacy

Belief in the inherent superiority of whites over the rest of humanity; peaked in the period before world war I

Great Trek

Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal

Natal

a port city in northeastern Brazil

Boer Republics

Independent states- orange free state and Transvaal- established during the 1850s in the south african interior by Afrikaners

Cecil Rhodes

Born in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire builder with a philosophy of mystical imperialism

Boer War (1899-1902)

Fought between the British and Afrikaners; British victory and postwar policies left the African population of south Africa under Afrikaner control

Captain James Cook

English navigator who claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain and discovered several Pacific islands (1728-1779)

Kamehameha

Hawaiian prince; with British backing he created a unified kingdom by 1810; promoted the entry of Western ideas in commerce and social relations

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