Cell Reproduction Vocabulary

34 terms by Joshua-Eichel 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Gene

segment of DNA that transmits information from parent to offspring

Chromosome

a rod-shaped structure that forms when a single DNA molecule and its associated proteins coil tightly before cell division

Chromatids

the two copies of each chromosome, formed prior to cell division

Centromere

the protein disk in the center of a chromosome where the two chromatids are attached

Homologous Chromosomes

the two copies of each chromosome, which are similar in size and shape and have similar gene information

Diploid

when a cell contains two homologues of each chromosome

Gametes

egg cells and sperm cells

Haploid

when a cell contains only one homologue of each chromosome

Zygote

a fertilized egg cell; first cell of a new individual

Trisomy

a condition where a diploid cell has an extra chromosome

Karyotype

the collection of chromosomes found in an individual's cells

Down Syndrome

the traits produced by having an extra copy of chromosome 21

Nondisjunction

when each chromosome and its homologue fail to properly separate; one cell will receive both chromosomes while another cell receives no chromosomes

Amniocentesis

when a physician uses a needle and syringe to remove a small amount of fluid from the amnion, the sac that surrounds the fetus

Chorionic villi sampling

a physician analyzes a karyotype made using cells grown from a sample of the chorionic villi, fingerlike extensions of placenta that grow into the mother's uterus

Mutations

changes in an organism's genetic material

Deletion

when a fragment of a chromosome breaks off, it can be lost when the cell divides

Duplication

the chromosome fragment attaches to its homologous chromosome, which will carry two copies of a certain set of genes

Inversion

when a fragment of a chromosome breaks off and reattaches to the original chromosome in reverse orientation

Translocation

when a fragment of a chromosome breaks off and joins a non-homologous chromosome

Autosomes

the 22 pairs of chromosomes that are the same in both males and females

Sex Chromosomes

the chromosomes that differ between males and females

Binary Fission

a form of asexual reproduction that produces identical offspring

Cell Cycle

a repeating sequence of growth and division that is completed by many eukaryotic cells

Cytokinesis

when the cytoplasm divides

Interphase

a period of time where the cell does a great deal of growing while carrying out normal cell processes

Spindle Fiber

made of microtubules (long narrow tubes of protein) that help move the chromosomes apart in cell division

Kinetochore

a disk of protein that serves as a platform for assembling the microtubules that extends out from the centromere

Meiosis

the mechanism that halves the number of chromosomes in cells as a form of cell division

Spores

haploid cells in plants that later lead to the production of gametes

Crossing-over

the process in the beginning of meiosis 1 where homologous chromosomes pair up next to each other

Skipping Replication

there is only one replication of DNA but two divisions, halving the number of chromosomes in each new cell

Reduction Division

when each new cell after meiosis 1 contains half the number of chromosomes of the original cell

Genetic Recombination

the formation of new combinations of genes

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set