Endocrine Glands & Hormones

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Pituitary Gland

lies in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone Produced Hormones: 1.Human growth hormone (HGH)
2.Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
3.Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
4.Leteinizing hormone (LH)
5.Prolactin
6.Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
7.Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
Synthesize Hormones:
8.Ocytocin & 9. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone)

initiates development of egg and secretion of estrogens by ovaries/stimulates testes to produce sperm - (Produced in Pituitary Gland)

HGH (Human growth hormone)

Growth and repair of cells- (Produced in Pituitary Gland)

TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone)

Stimulates thyroid to secrete its hormones- (Produced in Pituitary Gland)

LH (Leteinizing hormone)

F - Stimulates ovaries to secrete estrogens and progesterone, ovulation
M - Stimulate testes to secrete testosterone- (Produced in Pituitary Gland)

Prolactin

Promotes milk secretion by mammary glands- (Produced in Pituitary Gland)

ACTH (Adrenocorticotrophic hormone)

Stimulates glucocorticoid secretion by adrenal cortex- (Produced in Pituitary Gland)

Melanocyte

Not sure
May influence brain activity in excess
Can cause darkening of skin - (Produced in Pituitary Gland)

Ocytocin

Causes contraction of uterus during childbirth
Causes contraction of cell in mammary glands to secrete milk - (Sythensized in Pituitary Gland)

ADH (Antidiuretic hormone)

Conserves water by decreasing urine and sweating and by increasing blood pressure by constricting arteries (Produced in Hypothalmus & Pituitary glands)

Thyroid Gland

just inferior to larynx & Produces hormones: T3 (triiodothyronine)

T4 (thyroxine)

Calcitonin

T3 (triiodothyronine) T4 (thyroxine)

Increases metabolism - (Produced in Thyroid Gland)

Calcitonin

Lowers blood calcium (Produced in Thyroid Gland)

Parathyroid Gland

These 4 glands are located on the posterior surface of the thyroid & Produces hormone: Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

PTH (Parathyroid hormone )

Increases blood calcium levels

Adrenal Glands

Paired pyramid shaped glands located on the superior to kidney bilatteraly - The outer layer, cortex, produces 3 types of hormones
Mineralocorticoids, Glucocorticoids, Androgens

The inner layer, medulla, produces 2 hormones
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

Mineralocorticoids

Increases blood sodium and water
Decreases blood potassium
(Produced in Adrenal Glands)

Glucocorticoids

Increases protein breakdown
Resistance to stress
Anti-inflammatory
Depresses immune response
(Produced in Adrenal Glands)

Androgens

Increase growth of axillary and pubic hair
F - contribute to libido and source of estrogens after menopause (Produced in Adrenal Glands)

Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

Both enhance the effects of sympathetic nervous system "fight or flight" (Produced in Adrenal Glands)

Pineal Gland

Root of the 3rd ventricle of the brain - Produces Hormone: Meltonin

Meltonin

Biological clock (sleeping levels 10x greater) - (Produced in the Pineal Gland)

Hypothalamus

Superior to the pituitary - Produces Hormone: Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Pancreas

Located posterior and slightly inferior to stomach - Produces Hormone: Insulin & Glucagon

Insulin

Decreases blood glucose
Accelerating transport of glucose into cells
Stimulates turning glucose into storage forms - Glycogen, lipids, proteins - (Produced in the Pancreas)

Glycogen

Increase Blood Glucose - (Produced in the Pancreas)

Ovaries

Located in the pelvic cavity - Produces Hormones: Estrogens and progesterone, Relaxin & Inhibin

Estrogens and Progesterone

Regulate female hormonal cycle
Regulate oogensis
Maintain pregnancy
Prepare mammary glands for lactation
Develop and maintain secondary sex characteristics
(Produced in the ovaries)

Inhibin

Inhibits release of FSH from anterior pituitary -(Produced in the ovaries & Testes)

Testes

Located in scrotum - Produces Hormone: Testosterone & Inhibin

Testosterone

Stimulates decent of testes before birth
Regulates the production of sperm
Develop and maintain secondary sex characteristics
(Produced in Testes)

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