ch.14 mgmt dynamics of behavior in organizations

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organizational behavior

an interdisciplinary field dedicated to the study of how individuals and groups tend to act in organizations.

organizational citizenship

work behavior that goes beyond job requirements and contribues as needed to the organization's success.

attitude

a cognitive and affective evaluation that predisposes a person to act in a certain way.

What are the two attitudes that relate to high performnce

job satisfcation and commitment to the organization.

job satisfaction

a positive attitude towards one's job. when matches a persons needs and interests, working conditions and rewards.

organizational commitment

loyalty to and heavy involvement in one's organization. can be promoted by keeping employees infromed, giving them a say in decisions, providing the necessary training and other resources that enable them to succeed, treating them fairly, and offering rewards they value.

cognitive dissonance

a condition in which two attitudes or a behavior and an attitude conflict.

perception

the cognitive process people use to make sense out of the environment by selecting, organizing, and interpreting info. step by step process.

preceptual selectivity

is the process by which individuals screen and select the various objects and stimuli that vie for their attention. certain stimuli catch their attention, and other do not. is a complex filtering process. people typically focus on stimuli that satisfy their needs and that are consistent with their attitudes, values and personality.

perceptual distortions

errors in perceptual judgment that arise from inaccuracies in any part of the perceptual process.

stereotyping

the tendency to assign and individual to a group or broad category and then attribute generalizations about the group to the individual.

halo effect

occurs when the perceiver develops an overall impression of a person or situation based on one characterisitc, either favorable or unfavorable

projection

is the tendency of perceivers to see their own personal traits in other people; that is , they project their own needs, feelings, values, and attitudes into their judgement of others.

perceptual defense

is the tendency of perceivers to protect themselves against ideas, objects, people that are threatening. tend to disregard disturbing or unpleasant things and perceive pleasant satifying things.

attributions

are judgments about what caused a person's behavior something about the person or something about the situation.

fundamental attribution error

the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors on another's behavior and to overestimate the influence of internal factors

self-serving bias

the tendency to overestimate the contribution of internal factors to one's successes and the contribution of external factors to one's failures

personality

the set of characteristics that underlie a relatively stable pattern of behavior in response to ideas, object, or people in the environment.

Big Five Personality factors

Dimensions that describe and individuals extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience.

Extroversion

the degree to which a person is outgoing. sociable, assertive, and comfortable with interpersonal relationships.

agreeableness

the degree to which a person is able to get along with others by being good-natured, likable, cooperative, forgiving, understanding, and trusting.

conscientiousness

the degree to which a person is focused on a few goals, thus behaving in ways that are responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement oriented.

emotional stability

the degree to which a person is calm, enthusiastic, and self confident, rather than tense, depressed, moody, or insecure.

openness to experience

the degreee to which a person has a broad range of interests and is imaginative, creative, artistically sensitive, and willing to consider new ideas.

authoritarianism

is the belief that power and status differences should exist within the organization.

machiavellianism

which is characterized by the acquisition of power and the manipulation of other people for purely personal gain.

stress

a physiological and emotional response to stimuli that place physical or psychological demands on an individual.

role ambiguity

which means that people are unclear about what task behaviors are expected of them.

role conflict

incompatible demands of different roles.

locus of control

the tendency to place the primary responsibility for ones success or failure either within oneself internally or outside forces externally.

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