psych 232 midterm uri

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Life expectancy has increased by ____ years during the 20th century?

30

Two developmental psychologists are having a conversation. One believes in the traditional view of developmental change; the other believes in the life-span view. Which of the following issues would they be most likely to differ over?

whether most developmental change occurs from birth to adolescence or throughout adulthood as well as childhood

If you subscribe to Paul Baltes' perspective of life-span development, which of hte following statements would you NOT agree with?

Development is unidirectional

When she was a child, Anna's home was wrecked by a tornado and a neighbor was killed. More than 30 years later, she is still terrifired of storms. This is an example of how a ___ event can influence a person's development.

nonnormative life

Compared with earlier decades, U.S. adults today are:

more likely to be childless

_____ processes refer to changes in the individual's thought, intelligence, and language.

cognitive

the ___ period is the time from conception to birth

prenatal

This is the time of establishing personal and economic independence, career development, and, for many, selecting a mate, learning to live iwth someone in an intimate way, starting a family, and rearing children.

early adulthood

the ____ issue involves the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change

stability-change

Identify the correct order of the five stages of psychosexual development set out in Freud's theory of development

oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital

One of the differences between Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson is that:

Erikson emphasized the importance of both early and later experiences

Kelly responds to her infant son's needs in a consistent and timely way. When he is tired, she puts him down for a nap and when he is hungry, she feeds him. Erikson would say that Kelly is helping her son to develop a sense of:

trust

Lynne, 5, loves to draw and color. She can do simple additions on her abacus or by counting on her fingers. According to Piaget;s cognitive development theory, Lynne is in the ____ stage of cognitive development

preoperational

Dr. Wong is a cognitive developmental theorist, so we know that he will stress the importance of ___ in understanding development

conscious thoughts

the information-processing theory:

emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, moniotor it, and strategize about it

Accorrding to Urie Bronfenbrennar's ecological theory, the person's family, peers, school, and neighboorhood constitute his or her:

microsystem

Flevy is conduting an extensive market study and has hired a big group of college students to hand out a standard set of questions to shoppers at malls and supermarkets and to seek their responses. Which of the following methods of data collection of Flevy using?

survey

Dr. Jackson's research has found that the correlation between IQ and head circumference is +.10. From this information, we can conclude that:

there is a scant relationship between head size and IQ

Which of the following correlations is the strongest?

-.77

Which of the following is NOT a component of the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart?

genetic counseling

the eveolutionary process that favors individuals of a species that are best adapted to survive and reproduce is called:

natural selection

the building blocks of cells and regulators that direct the body's processes are called what?

proteins

______ is the speialized form of cell division in whicha cell duplicates its chromosomes but then divides twice?

meiosis

humans have _____ pairs of chromosomes:

23

Emily, who has brown eyes, has one dominant gene and one recessive gene. When we describe her actual genetic makeup, we are describing her:

genotype

A genetic disorder that impairs the body's red blood cells is called:

sickle-cell anemia

____ of pregnancies achieved by fertility treatments result in multiple births

25-30%

A recent study has found that adopted adolescents are:

less likely to be socially withdrawn

Which of hte following terms states that development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange beween hereditiy and the environment?

epigenetic view

The bag in which the developing embryo floats is called the:

amnion

At birth, the average baby's brian has about ____ neurons which handle information processing:

100 billion

the mortality rate of infants born to adolescent mothers is

two times greater than infants born to mothers in their 20s

Researchers have found that when ___ is used prior to and during delivery, it can reduce pain and anxiety during labor and alleviate prenatal depression

massage

in the united states, about what percentage of births are attended by a midwife?

8%

the _____ is used to assess the health of newborns at one and five minutes after birth

apgar scale

Regarding bonding, which of the following statements are FALSE?

some physicians believe that during the period shortly after birth, the parents and newborn need to form an emotinal attachement as a foundation for optimal developement

Infants can see objects before they can control their torso, and they can use tehir hands long before they can crawl or walk. This would indicate thhat they have a _____ pattern of growth:

cephalocaudal

Infants usually double their birth weight by the age of:

4 months

Which of the following statements is true about brain development?

Extensive brain development continues after birth, through infancy and later

In the cerebral cortex, the ____ lobes are involved in voluntary movement, thinking, personality, and intentionality or purpose:

frontal

While scooting on the floor, baby Giovanni fell down the stairs. If she can no longer see, it is likely that her ____ lobe was damaged:

occipital

Which of the following statements is true about specialization of function in a hemisphere of the cerebral cortex?

Complex functions such as reading or performing msuic involve both hemispheres

A(n) ____ is a layer of fat cells that encases many axons, insulates axons, and helps electrical signals travel faster down the axon:

myelin sheath

Which of the following statements is true of how many neurons change in the first years of life?

The synaptic connections that are used become strengthened and survive, while the unused ones are replaced by other pathways or disappear

14 year old Michael Rehbein had the left hemisphere of his brain removed to end uncontrollable seizures, and gradually his right hemisphere began to reorganize and take over functions that normally occur in the brain's left hemisphere. This case study is cited in text in order to demonstrate that:

the brain is both flexible and resilient

Of the following infants, who is the most at risk for SIDS?

MIMI, her mother smokes

A national study of more than 3,000 randomly selected 4 to 24 month olds documented that:

by 15 months, French fries were the most common vegetable that babies ate

For years, debate has focused on whether breast feeding is better for the infant than bottle feeding. The growing concensus is that:

breast feeding is better for the baby's health

which of the following is an issue in interpreting the benefits of breast feeding that was underscored in a recent large-scale research review?

breast fed babies could be healthier because women who breast feed are wealthier, older, more educated, and likely more health-conscious

Some people take Baruti's swollen belly to be a sign that he is well-fed and healthy. But the boy sufferes from a condition that cuases his vital organs to collect the nutrients that are present, thus depriving other parts of the body of those nutrients. Baruti's thin, brittle, and colorless hair, swollen feet and stomach, and listless behavior are all tell-tale signs that he suffers from:

Kwashiorkor

The view of development that sees motor skills developing as a solution to an infant's problems is known as:

dynamic systems

According to Erik Erikson, the psychosocial stage that characterizes early childhood is:

initiative versus guilt

When Edie, 4 years old, says "My teacher is nice," it reflects how young children

begin to perceive others in terms of psychological traits

Self-conscious emotions do not appear to develop until self-awareness appears around
_____ of age.

18 months

Four-year-old Melody is throwing a tantrum because her mother told her that she could
not stay up late with her older sister to watch television. Melody's mother said, "I can see
that you are angry, but your bedtime is 8:00. We can read a book together in bed to help
you calm down." Compared to her peers, Melody is more likely to:

be better at self-soothing when she does not get her way

Developmental psychologists would describe Jennifer as an "emotion-dismissing"
parent. It is likely that she would also be described as:

a "rejecting" parents

Jennie is in third grade and is tempted to cheat on a test but chooses not to because she
knows that it would be wrong. According to the psychoanalytic theory of moral
development, what is responsible for keeping Jennie from doing wrong?

Guilt

Katrina becomes extremely upset when her brother tries to change the rules of their
game, yelling, "You can't do that! You can't change rules!" Katrina is exhibiting which of
the following types of moral reasoning?

heteronomous morality

Twice each month, Gini helps to serve dinner at the "Community Table," a program that
assists homeless people in the town. She brings her two children, ages 9 and 11, with her
and talks to them about the need to share time, food, and kindness with others who are less
fortunate. Behavioral theorists would say that:

Gini's children are likely to develop moral behavior that includes helping others

_____ refers to acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role.

gender typing

____ psychologists propose that men have gradually changed over time to have
dispositions that favor competition and risk-taking.

evolutionary

Psychological evolutionary theories of gender differences fail to take into account:

cultural and individual variations in gender differences

Research on peer pressure to conform to traditional gender roles suggests that:

there is greater pressure for boys

Which parenting style is demanding and controlling, while also being rejecting, and
unresponsive?

authoritarian

Penelope has low self-esteem and is unhappy. She appears to be anxious around her
peers and has few friends. Her teacher asked her why she sat by herself at lunch. Penelope
stated that the other kids would not want her to join them, because she is ugly and dumb. It
is most likely that she grew up in a home with parents who were _____

authoritarian

Four-year old Becky has just hit her sister, again. What should Becky's mom do? Most
developmental psychologists would suggest:

explaining to Becky that "hitting hurts"; she is old enough to understand the consequences of her behavior for others

Following divorce, custodial mothers experience the loss of about _____ of their
predivorce income.

25 to 50 %

In general in the United States, African American and Latino family orientations differ
from white family orientations in that:

the extended family plays a greater role in African American and Latino families

Constructive play:

engages children in their own solution to a problem

Steur, Applefield, and Smith randomly assigned children to two groups. One group
watched cartoons containing violence, and the other group watched cartoons with the
violence removed. During a free-play session, the children who watched the cartoons
containing violence showed more aggression than children who watched the nonviolent
cartoons. Which conclusion was drawn from this study?

exposure to TV violence caused aggression in children in this investigation

During elementary school years, most children double their:

strength capabilities

Advances in the _____ of the brain are linked to children's _____.

prefrontal cortex; improved attention, reasoning and cognitive control

Eight-year-old Milaka can use scissors to cut small paper dolls out of construction paper,
something she could not do at age 3. What best accounts for her improving dexterity?

increased myelination of the central nervous system

In one historical comparison, the percentage of children involved in daily P.E. programs
in schools _____ between 1969 and 1999.

decreased dramatically

Approximately _____ of all children from 3 to 21 years of age in the United States
receive special education or related services.

14%

Research indicates that it is unlikely that learning disabilities:

reside in a single, specific brain location

A child is presented with two identical balls of clay. The experimenter rolls one ball into
a long, thin shape; the other remains in its original ball. The child is then asked if there is
more clay in the ball or in the long, thin piece of clay. If the child answers the problem
correctly, the child most likely is in which stage of Piaget's cognitive development theory?

concrete operational stage

According to Ellen Langer, _____ being alert, mentally present, and cognitively flexible
while going through life's everyday activities and tasks—is an important aspect of thinking
critically.

mindfulness

Colin does not earn high grades on standardized tests but has a black belt in martial arts.
According to Gardner, Colin has _____ skills.

bodily-kinesthetic

Considering how early intervention programs to improve intellectual development—
such as the Abecedarian Intervention program—have shown marked improvements in the
IQ of participants, it can be inferred that the main reason that children from low-income
group families earn lower scores on IQ tests is that:

many low-income parents have difficultly providing an intellectually stimulating environment for their children

Which of the following is true of giftedness?

individuals with world-class status in the arts, mathematics, science, and sports all report strong family support

Jaymon is a third-grader and has been asked by his teacher to describe himself. What is
the MOST likely description Jaymon will give?

"I am friendly"

Many of today's children grow up receiving praise for mediocre or even poor
performance. What could be a possible consequence of this?

they may have difficulty handling competition and criticism

Albert Bandura called the belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable
outcomes _____.

self-efficacy

Julio cannot get his science project to work. In fact, it seems to him that nothing he
makes ever works properly. According to Erik Erikson, Julio is at risk for developing a
sense of:

inferiority

Which of the following statements represents a criticism of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory
of moral development?

its not what one thinks, but one does that is most important for morality

Carol Gilligan reports that males tend to use a(n) _____ perspective when making moral
judgments, whereas females tend to use a(n) _____ perspective.

justice; care

Reasoning that focuses on conventional rules that have been established by social
consensus in order to control behavior and maintain the social system as known as:

social conventional reasoning

Boys are much more likely than girls to be behaviorally disruptive in the classroom. This
is because:

boys show less self-regulation

Which of the following is the approach of the bullying intervention program created by
Dan Olweus?

decreasing opportunities and rewards for bullying

Which of the following is used to assess children's perspective-taking skills?

Theory of mind tasks

Mr. Trahan teaches English from a constructivist approach to learning. In his classroom,
it is LEAST likely that the students will be:

memorizing the names of all the Shakespeare's plays

Which of the following is true of schools in low-income areas?

teaching is more likely to encourage rote learning

All of the following are effective ways to improve relationships among ethnically
diverse students EXCEPT:

turning the classroom into a segregated learning experience

Carol Dweck (2006) concluded that individuals have one of two mindsets, which are
fixed mindset or:

growth mindset

Physical activities such as sucking, grasping, and walking are examples of:

behavioral schemes

. _____ occurs when children adjust their schemes to take new information and experiences into account.

assimilation

Two-year-old Anita has learned the word "dog" to identify the family pet Rover. Now Anita says the word "dog" when she sees any animal. Anita has _____ these animals into her existing scheme.

assimilated

4. What makes one stage more advanced than another in Jean Piaget's theory?

the child's new way of understanding the world

. Alice is three weeks old. According to Piaget, Alice is in substage of _____ and will latch on to and suck anything that is touched to her lips.
a. simple reflexes

simple reflexes

During which substage of sensorimotor development do infants begin to incorporate sensation and action?

first habits and primary circular reactions

Antonio swings his arms while lying in his crib. One of his arms accidentally hits the mobile hanging above him. This causes the mobile to begin to move. Antonio continues to swing his arms but is unable to strike the mobile again. This is an example of a:

primary circular reaction

. The understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched is called:

object permanence

Which of the following is a key criticism of Jean Piaget's theory of sensorimotor cognitive development?

Jean Piaget failed to conduct observations in the infant's everyday environment

. In considering the big issue of whether nature or nurture plays the more important role in infant development, Elizabeth Spelke endorses a _____ approach, which states that infants are born with domain-specific innate knowledge systems.

core knowledge

Most researchers find that babies start to develop explicit memory when they are about:
a. six months old.

six months old

A newborn baby widens her eyes after her mother widens her eyes and mouth and smiles at the baby. Meltzoff would say that this baby is:

engaging in true imitation

Research on categorization has shown all of the following EXCEPT that:

girls have more and stronger interests in categories than boys

The current version of this widely used assessment method of infant development has five scales: cognitive, language, motor, socioemotional, and adaptive.

Bayley Scales of Infant Development

Which of the following is NOT one of the five rules of language?

Reciprocity

Kevin loves to say, "Da, da, da, da" over and over again. This is an example of what type of communication?

babbling

. When Alice speaks to her six-month old niece, her voice immediately takes on a higher pitch, her speech becomes slower, and she begins using more simplistic words and phrases. This change in Aunt Allie's language behavior provides an example of:

child-directed speech

Feelings or affects that occur when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to him or her, especially to his/her well being are known as:

emotions

What is the opinion of experts on infant socioemotional development, such as Jerome Kagan, on the infant's capacity to display emotions like guilt, pride, despair, shame, empathy, and jealousy in the first year?

the structural immaturity of the infant brain makes it unlikely that such emotions can be experienced in the first year

Which of the following statements is NOT true of crying?

newborns repsond with postive facial expressions when they hear other newborns cry

. Which of the following occurs FIRST in development?

reflexive smiling

Easy," "difficult," and "slow to warm up" are three basic types of _____ identified by psychiatrists Alexander Chess and Stella Thomas

temperament

When Josh was dropped off at preschool on the very first day of class, he was quite upset. He cried for a long time and would not play with the other children. What type of temperament does Josh have?

difficult

In the United States, parents tend to prefer children with an _____ temperament, whereas in China, an _____ temperament is more highly valued.

active; inhibited

What is the term used to describe "reading" emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation?

social referencing

What is the significant finding of Harlow's experiments on monkeys reared by surrogate mothers?

contact comfort is the crucial element in the attachment process

When put on the floor to play, baby Elaine cries as if she wants to be held. When her mother picks her up, though, Elaine pushes away with both arms and turns her head away. Mary Ainsworth would say that Elaine is:

insecure resistant

Which of the following statements about brain development and early childhood is true?

by age 6, the brain has reached about 95 percent of its adult size

Scientists found that the _____ did not show dramatic growth in the 3- to 15-year age range, but that the _____ dramatically changed

overall size of the brain; local patterns within the brain

When 4 and 5-year olds scramble over jungle gyms and race their friends, they are demonstrating their:

gross motor skills

Gross motor skills are to fine motor skills as _____ is to _____.

hopping; writing

A recent national study revealed all of the following about the eating habits of children today except:

children eat out half as less today than they did in the 1980s

Which of the following is NOT a factor in increasing the physical activity of preschool children?

participating in sedentary outdoor play

Which of the following statements regarding parental smoking is true?

children are at risk for health problems when they live in homes in which a parent smokes

The inability to distinguish between one's own perspective and someone else's perspective is known as _____.

egocentrism

Piaget called the second substage in preoperational thought "intuitive" because of the absence of the use of _____ in children in that stage.

rational thinking

Which of the following best describes the relation between centration and conservation?

lack of conservation is reflected in centration

In general, conservation involves the ability to understand that changes in physical arrangement:

does not change an object's basic properties

A toddler is likely to learn something in the zone of proximal development (ZPD) if:

the task is more difficult than the child can do alone

When teachers adjust their level of support and guidance to the level of skill of the student, it is called:

scaffolding

When Martha wants to feed her newborn son, she gently brushes her nipple against his cheek and in a ____ reflex, he turns head toward the side that was touched and immediately latches on to her breast

rooting

what is the foundation needed for gross motor skills to develop?

postural control

3 month old Hermes mother is in Jamacia

hermes will walk sooner

Jake, age 11 months, is able to pick up cereal and bits of fruit off the tray of his high chair by grasping htem with his thumb and forefinger. jake has developed the:

pincer grip

in the "sticky mittens" reserach project, it was found that:

the infants in the mitten group developed grasping skills earlier

the theorists who developed the ecological view of perceptual development in infancy are:

Eleanor and James Gibson

habituation is the name given to ___ to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus

decreased responsiveness

the technique of ___ consists of eye movements that follow a moving object and can be used to evaluate an infants early visual ability

tracking

sheena would like to hang one picture above her baby's crip. which of hte following is liekly to attract the most attention from the infacnt?

a drawing of a face

it is possible that infants could discriminate some colors as early as ___ weeks of age

4 to 8

Winne is considering the use of anesthesia during the circumscision of her newborn son. She wants to know if newborns can feel pain. what woul you tell her?

yes; recent research indicated that infants can feel pain

which of hte following statements about perceptual-motor coupling in infants is true?

babies coordinate their movements with perceptual information

amanda is 6 days old. which of hte following statements about Amanda's hearing is true?

amanda is more able to hear high-pitched sounds than low-pitched sounds

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