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taft-hartley act

1) outlawed closed shops (contract requiring workers to join a union before being hired
2) permitting states to pass "right to work" laws outlawing the union shop (contract requiring workers to join a union after being hired)
3) outlawing secondary boycotts (the practice of several unions giving support to a striking union by joining a boycott of a company's products)
4) giving the president the power to invoke an 80-day cooling off period before a strike endangering the national safety could be called

GI Bill of Rights

provided college education for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as G.I.s) as well as one year of unemployment compensation; provided loans for returning veterans to buy homes and start businesses

Veterans Administration

guarantees $16 billion in loans for WWII to buy homes, farms and start businesses

Dr. Benjamin Spock

an American pediatrician whose book Baby and Child Care is one of the biggest best-sellers of all time; Its revolutionary message to mothers was that "you know more than you think you do."; the first pediatrician to study psychoanalysis to try to understand children's needs and family dynamics

Federal Housing Administration

part of the National Housing Act of 1934; insured loans made by banks and other private lenders for home building and home buying; tax deductions for interest payments

White Flight

the sociological and demographic term denoting a trend wherein whites leave urban communities as the minority population increases

Baby Boom

period marked by a greatly increased birth rate

Missouri Gang

Truman's cronies

"The Buck Stops Here"

a phrase that was popularized by President Truman; The phrase refers to the fact that the President has to make the decisions and accept the ultimate responsibility for those decisions

Big Three

The leaders of the three major Allies of World War II: Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill

Yalta Conference

wartime meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union—President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and General Secretary Joseph Stalin; for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization; intended to discuss the re-establishment of the nations of war-torn Europe

Occupation Zones

divisions of Germany and Austria after WWII, into Soviet, French, British and U.S. temporary territories

United Nations

an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace; founded to replace the League of Nations; to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue

Cold War

the continuing state of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition existing after World War II between the Communist World - primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies - and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States and its allies; we never directly fought them

International Monetary Fund

made loans to and supervised the economic policies of poorer nations with debt troubles

Security Council

important part of the United Nations; has to maintain international peace and security; takes care of the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of international sanctions, and the authorization of military action

Nuremberg Trials

a series of military tribunals, held by the Allied forces of World War II, for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of the defeated Nazi Germany

Big Four

France, Britain, America, USSR

Satellite Nations

a country that appears to be independent, but is under heavy political and economic influence or control by another country; used mainly to refer to Central and Eastern European countries of the Warsaw Pact during the Cold War

Iron Curtain

symbolized the ideological fighting and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War; between western democracy and eastern communism

Berlin Airlift

carried supplies to the people in West Berlin

Containment Doctrine

made to stop the spread of communism; governed U.S. policy for decades

George F. Kennan

expert on Soviet affairs that contributed to the Containment Doctrine; said that if we contained Russia would cause the Soviets to back off their Communist ideology of world domination (X Article)

Truman Doctrine

a policy set forth by President Truman; stating that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere; anytime another country is threatened by a takeover, America will step in to help

George C. Marshall

an American military leader, Chief of Staff of the Army, Secretary of State, and the third Secretary of Defense.; Once noted as the "organizer of victory" by Winston Churchill for his leadership of the Allied victory in World War II; served as the United States Army Chief of Staff during the war and as the chief military adviser to FDR; inspired the Marshall Plan

Marshall Plan

an extensive program of economic aid to help the nations of Europe revive their economies and also strengthen democratic governments; very successful

National Security Act

provided for: 1) a centralized Department of Defense to coordinate operations of the Army, Navy and Air Force 2) the creation of the National Security Council to coordinate the making of foreign policy in the Cold War 3) the creation of the Central Intelligence Agency

Department of Defense

replaced the War Department; to coordinate operations of the Army, Navy and Air Force

Secretary of Defense

the head of the United States Department of Defense; to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense policy related to all matters of direct and primary concern to the DoD, and for the execution of approved policy

Joint Chiefs of Staff

a group of military leaders in the U.S. armed forces who advise the civilian government of the United States

National Security Council

coordinated the making of foreign policy in the Cold War

Central Intelligence Agency

to employ spies to gather information on foreign governments

Selective Service System

the way that the U.S. maintains information on those potentially subject to military conscription

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization- a military alliance for defending all members from outside attack (by Communists)

Douglas MacArthur

took firm charge of the reconstruction of Japan

Chinese Nationalists

aka Kuomintang party; corrupt; inefficient

Jiang Jieshi/ Chiang Kai-shek

an influential leader of the Nationalist Party

Chinese Communists

maintaining a unitary government centralizing the state, military, and media; popular because it gave hope to the impoverished people

Mao Zedong

Chinese Communist leader; not a puppet of Stalin

H-bomb

hydrogen bomb; first used by America on the South Pacific; 1,000 X more powerful than the A-bomb

loyalty oaths

an oath of loyalty to an organization, institution, or state of which an individual is a member; used by Truman to weed out the communists in America

Dennis v. United States

the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the Smith Act of 1940, which made it illegal to advocate or to teach the overthrow of the government by force or to belong to an organization with this objective

House Committee on Un-American Activities

originally established to seek out Nazis, was reactivated in the postwar years to find Communists; investigated government officials and looked for Communist influence in organizations

Richard M. Nixon

led the chase of Alger Hiss; House Committee on Un-American Activities member

Alger Hiss

prominent ex-New Dealer and a distinguished member of the "eastern establishment"; accused of being a Communist; convicted for perjury

Joseph McCarthy

a Republican senator from Wisconsin; accused 205 people of being Communists within the State Department; most powerful man because people feared him

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

American communists who were executed in 1953 for conspiracy to commit espionage. The charges related to passing information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. This was the first execution of civilians for espionage in United States history

Thomas E. Dewey

Republican presidential candidate for the election of 1948

Strom Thurmond

"Dixiecrat" presidential candidate for the election of 1948

Henry Wallace

Progressive presidential candidate for the election of 1948

Fair Deal

a 21 point program of domestic legislation outlining a series of proposed actions in the fields of economic development and social welfare; called for improved housing, full employment, a higher minimum wage, better farm price supports, new TVA's, and an extension on Social Security

38th Parallel

a dividing line for Korea in 1896 for the Soviet troops in the north and American troops in the South

Pusan

South Korea's second largest metropolis after Seoul

NSC-68

a 58-page formerly-classified report issued by the United States National Security Council; top secret; shaped U.S. foreign policy in the Cold War for the next 20 years

Police Action

a euphemism for a military action undertaken without a formal declaration of war

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