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Written in 1285, in what document were British police practices codified?

Statute of Winchester

In the development of law enforcement in English cities and towns, who had the responsibility of maintaining the night watch?

Bailiff

What was the name of the individual who ran a type of fencing operation in London in the early eighteenth century? He would negotiate with legitimate owners for a ransom of their possessions.

Jonathan Wild

Some have attributed the growth of modern police forces to what type of alcohol?

Gin

Who is credited with creating the London Metropolitan Police?

Robert Peel

What 1931 commission recognized that Prohibition was unenforceable and reported that it carried a great potential for police corruption?

The Wickersham Commission

What was the most influential of the Wickersham Commission reports?

Report on the Enforcement of the Prohibition Laws of the United States

What was the name of the agency, formed in 1969, to assist police forces across the country in acquiring the latest technology and in adopting new enforcement methods?

Law Enforcement Assistance Administration

Congress created the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration with the passage of what act?

Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act

What term refers to the application of social science techniques to the study of police administration for the purpose of increasing effectiveness, reducing the frequency of citizen complaints, and enhancing the efficient use of available resources?

Scientific police management

What is considered the most famous application of social research principles to police management?

Kansas City preventive patrol experiment

What is considered the backbone of police work?

Patrol

What is the term for using research in everyday police procedures to evaluate current practices and to guide officers and police executives in future decision making?

Evidence-based policing

What has been called the single "most powerful force for change" in policing today?

Evidence-based policing

Under what department would you find the FBI?

Department of Justice

Under which department would you find the United States Secret Service?

Department of Homeland Security

Under what department would you find the Federal Air Marshals Program?

Department of Transportation

What is CODIS?

A computerized forensic database of DNA profiles of offenders convicted of serious crimes

What was the first state to create a law enforcement agency?

Texas

On what two models are state law enforcement agencies usually organized?

Centralized and decentralized

Which of the following is a function of centralized police agencies?

Maintain a centralized criminal records repository. etc.

Which model of policing draws a distinction between traffic enforcement on the state highways and other state-level law enforcement functions by creating at least two separate agencies?

Decentralized

What agency has been called the "first modern state police agency"?

Pennsylvania State Police

What agency is the nation's largest law enforcement agency?

NYPD

Approximately how many municipal police departments are there in the United States?

12,760

Who typically appoints someone to the position of police chief?

Mayor

Which of the following is a private security agency?

Pinkerton's Inc.

Which of the following is a major reason for the quick growth of the American proprietary security sector?

An increase in crimes in the workplace, etc.

Early American policing was based on the Roman model of policing? True/False

False

The London Metropolitan Police force was the model for police forces around the world? True/False

True

One of the major factors determining the development of American law enforcement was the frontier.? True/False

True

Most of the original vigilantes of the American West were honest men and women trying to forge an organized and predictable lifestyle out of the challenging situations they encountered? True/False

True

Alice Stebbins Wells was the first policewoman in the world, serving with the New York City Police Department in 1910? True/False

False

The organization of American law enforcement has been called the most complex in the world? True/False

True

The creation of the FBI was motivated, at least in part, by the inability of other agencies to stem the rising tide of American political and business corruption? True/False

True

Most state police agencies were created in the late nineteenth or early twentieth century to meet specific needs? True/False

True

The majority of local police agencies employ more than ten full-time officers? True/False

False

In most countries public police outnumber private police? True/False

False

According to the National Center for Policy Analysis, private security personnel outnumber public law enforcement officers in the United States by nearly three to one? True/False

True

The FBI operates legal attaché offices in a number of major cities around the world? True/False

True

Airport security is an example of private security services? True/False

True

The London Metropolitan Police were well received by the citizens from the start? True/False

False

The National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals recommended that a college degree be made a basic prerequisite for police employment by the 1980s? True/False

True

FBI headquarters are located in New York City? True/False

False

State police are generally responsible for serving court papers, including civil summonses, and for maintaining security within state courtrooms? True/False

False

Sheriffs are responsible for operating the county jails and are appointed to the position of sheriff by the mayor? True/False

False

According to one report, employment in public police agencies is expected to grow by 4% per year, whereas employment in the field of private security is expected to expand by only 2.8% per year for the foreseeable future? True/False

False

Experts estimate that the money spent on private security in this country exceeds the combined budgets of all law enforcement agencies - local, state, and federal? True/False

True

Who founded the Bow Street Runners?

Henry Fielding

What conclusions can be drawn from the Kansas City preventive patrol study?

There was no significant change in any of the patrol zones

What is the Criminal Justice Information Services Division?

The central repository for criminal justice information services in the FBI

According to one report, approximately 67% of the sheriff's departments in the United States employ how many sworn officers per department?

Fewer than 25

What agency was known as the new police?

London Metropolitan Police Force

The majority of local police agencies employ how many full-time officers?

Fewer than 10

What was the finding of the second Kansas City study that focused on response time?

A rapid response had little effect on the arrest of offenders and the satisfaction of citizens

How many special agents are employed by the FBI?

Nearly 13,000

How many sworn officers are employed on the New York City Police Department?

About 38,000

Where is the largest jail system in the world located?

Los Angeles

What is the average daily inmate population of the Los Angeles County Jail System?

18,400

According to one report, how much of the nation's critical infrastructure is protected by private security?

85%

In what year did the New York City Police Department begin?

1844

What is the process of crime analysis and police management developed by the New York City Police Department in the mid-1990s to help police managers better assess their performance and foresee the potential for crime?

CompStat

What are quality-of-life offenses?

Minor violations that demoralize residents and businesspeople by creating disorder

Which of the core operational strategies in policing has been the backbone of police work since the time of Sir Robert Peel?

Preventive patrol

Which of the core operational strategies in policing consumes most of the resources of most local and state-level police agencies?

Preventive patrol

What is seen as the dominant operational policing strategy and has been the backbone of police work?

Preventive patrol

What percentage of daily calls to 9-1-1 systems across the country are directed to the police rather than emergency medical or fire services?

About 70%

What is the foundation on which the entire criminal investigation process is built?

An effective preliminary investigation

What is the term for information about a crime that can provide a basis for determining the perpetrator's identity?

Solvability factor

Which of the core operational strategies is the least well-developed by the police profession?

Problem solving

Which of the police operational strategies includes activities such as dispatch, training, human resource management, and property and evidence control?

Support services

What is the term for the administrative activities that control, direct, and coordinate police personnel, resources, and activities in an effort to prevent crime, apprehend criminals, and recover stolen property?

Police management

What are the general categories of roles within most police agencies?

Line and staff

What is the term used to identify who reports to whom?

Chain of command

Which police era was characterized by close ties between the police and public officials?

Political period

What is the term that refers to the number of police personnel or the number of units supervised by a particular commander?

Span of control

Which police era is new and continues to evolve and grow out of concern for terrorists attacks?

Homeland security era

Which style of policing is basically concerned with achieving order maintenance through control of illegal and disruptive behavior?

Watchman style

Which style of policing enforces the letter of the law?

Legalistic style

In which style of policing do the police see themselves more as helpers than as soldiers in a war on crime?

Service style

What policing concept assigned officers semipermanently to particular neighborhoods, where it was expected they would become familiar with the inhabitants and with their problems and concerns?

Team policing

What type of policing attempts to forge a partnership between the police and the community, so that they can work together on solving problems of crime?

Community policing

What type of policing takes the view that many crimes are caused by existing social conditions in the community and that to control crime, police attempt to uncover and effectively address these underlying social problems?

Problem-solving policing

What type of policing retains the traditional police goal of professional crime fighting but enlarges the enforcement target to include nontraditional kinds of criminals?

Strategic policing

According to a 2001 report by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, how many full-time sworn personnel were regularly engaged in community policing activities at the state and local levels?

113,000

What are the highest priorities of the police under the community policing philosophy?

Whatever problems disturb the community the most

What type of intelligence includes gaining or developing information related to threats of terrorism or crime and using this information to apprehend offenders, harden targets, and use strategies that will eliminate or mitigate the threat?

Tactical intelligence

What type of intelligence provides information to decision makers about the changing nature of threats for the purpose of developing response strategies and reallocating resources to accomplish effective prevention?

Strategic intelligence

What is the central purpose of fusion centers?

Information sharing

According to a report, what percentage of state police agencies requires a four-year college degree for employment?

4%

According to Sir Robert Peel in 1822, the basic mission for which the police exist is to reduce crime and disorder.

True

The case of Davis v. City of Dallas upheld a police department policy requiring a minimum of 45 semester hours of successful college-level study for new recruits.

True

A preliminary investigation begins when the police arrive at the crime scene.

False

Because almost all police agencies need support, only the smallest departments have only line operations.

True

Compared to the watchman style, the legalistic style uses discretion liberally.

False

Legalistic departments routinely avoid community disputes arising from violations of social norms that do not break the law.

True

Today, an increasing number of law enforcement administrators embrace the role of service provider.

True

Community policing efforts are limited to urban areas.

False

Community policing has become the dominant theme of contemporary police reform in America.

True

While criminal investigation is typically part of the intelligence-gathering process, the intelligence function of a police department is more exploratory and more broadly focused than a single criminal investigation.

True

Community interest is a factor that may influence police use of discretion.

True

Unpopular laws are not likely to get much attention from law enforcement officers.

True

There is an increasing emphasis being placed in the formal education of police officers.

True

Noneducated police officers are more likely to leave police work, question orders, and request reassignment more frequently than educated officers.

True

Most federal agencies require college degrees for entry-level positions.

False

During the selection process, nearly all local police departments use personal interviews.

True

Municipal and county agencies trail state agencies by a wide margin in hiring and promoting women.

False

The watchman style of policing was typified by the Los Angeles police officers who took part in the infamous beating of Rodney King.

True

Under the philosophy of community policing, the police are seen as one department among many responsible for improving the quality of life.

True

Community policing is a one-way street.

False

According to research, what percentage of all calls to the police involve situations that actually require a law enforcement response, that is, situations that might lead to arrest and eventual prosecution?

10% to 20%

What is the concept that is based on the notion that physical decay in a community can breed disorder and lead to crime by signaling that laws are not being enforced?

Broken windows model of policing

Which of the core operational strategies in policing is the newest?

Problem solving

What is the term used for the process of discovering, collecting, preparing, identifying, and presenting evidence to determine what happened and who is responsible when a crime occurs?

Criminal investigation

Under which police operational strategy would you find the methodology SARA?

Problem solving

Which police era began in the 1930s and ended in the 1970s and was characterized by pride in professional crime fighting?

Reform era

Which police era stresses the service role of police officers?

Community policing era

Which police era is new, continues to evolve, and grew out of concern for terrorist attacks?

Homeland security era

Which policing style could be linked to the political era?

Watchman style

Which policing style can be linked to the reform era?

Legalistic style

Who are the police researchers credited with evolving the concept of community policing?

Kelling and Trojanowicz

In early studies looking at citizens' attitudes developed through face-to-face interaction with individual police officers, which group generally had a far higher level of dissatisfaction with the police?

African-Americans

What is the name of the process that evaluates information collected from diverse sources, integrates the relevant information into a cohesive package, and produces conclusions or estimates about a criminal phenomenon by using the scientific approach to problem solving?

Criminal intelligence

According to the International Association of Women Police, how many female police chiefs are located throughout the United States?

More than 100

Which Constitutional amendment guarantees the right to an attorney?

Sixth Amendment

Which amendment is concerned with search and seizure?

Fourth Amendment

What was the first landmark case concerning search and seizure?

Weeks v. United States

What United States Supreme Court case formed the basis of the exclusionary rule?

Weeks v. United States

What is a writ of certiorari?

An order from the Supreme Court to the lower court to prepare the records for review

What principle states that illegally seized evidence cannot be used in a trial and neither can evidence be used that derives from an illegal seizure?

Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine

Which Supreme Court decision applied the exclusionary rule to criminal prosecutions at the state level?

Mapp v. Ohio

In the 1984 case of U.S. v. Leon, the Court recognized what exception to the exclusionary rule?

Good faith

Which case is known as the "inevitable discovery exception"?

Nix v. Williams

What 1984 Supreme Court decision is known as the "public safety exception"?

New York v. Quarles

Which Constitutional amendment guarantees the right to reasonable bail?

Eighth Amendment

Which Constitutional amendment guarantees the right against cruel and unusual punishments?

Eighth Amendment

What United States Supreme Court decision articulated the principle of the "fruit of the poisoned tree doctrine"?

Silverhorne Lumber Co. v. U.S.

Which Supreme Court decision limited the search incident to arrest to the area under the immediate control of the person arrested?

Chimel v. California

In which case was the ruling that police officers may not enter a home to conduct a warrantless search if one resident gives permission but the other says no?

Georgia v. Randolph

In which case did the Supreme Court rule that for a defendant to be entitled to Fourth Amendment protection, he must demonstrate that he personally has an expectation of privacy in the place searched and that his expectation is reasonable?

Minnesota v. Carter

What 1984 case reinforced the concept of good faith?

Massachusetts v. Sheppard

What 1987 Supreme Court case upheld the use of evidence obtained with a search warrant that was inaccurate in its specifics?

Maryland v. Garrison

What 1990 Supreme Court decision was based on evidence discovered by police in an apartment after receiving consent to search by a woman that police reasonably believed had the authority to grant consent?

Illinois v. Rodriguez

In what case did the Supreme Court recognize the need for emergency warrantless entries under certain circumstances when it ruled that the police "may enter a home without a warrant when they have an objectively reasonable basis for believing that an occupant is seriously injured or imminently threatened with such injury"?

Brigham City v. Stuart

What 1990 decision by the Supreme Court extended the authority of police to search locations in a house where a potentially dangerous person could hide while an arrest warrant is being served?

Maryland v. Buie

What 1995 decision ruled that police generally must knock and announce their identity before entering a dwelling or other premises, even when armed with a search warrant?

Wilson v. Arkansas

What 1997 Supreme Court decision placed the burden on the individual courts to "determine whether the facts and circumstances of the particular entry justified dispensing with the requirement" to knock and announce?

Richards v. Wisconsin

What surprising 2006 decision allowed the use at trial of evidence found by police who enter a home to execute a warrant without first following the knock-and-announce requirement?

Hudson v. Michigan

What is the name of a search warrant issued on the basis of probable cause to believe that evidence of a crime, while not presently at the place described, will likely be there when the warrant is executed?

Anticipatory warrant

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