Spencer and Adams Model

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Stage 1

losing focus

Stage 1

the individual has difficulty keeping things in perspective and experiences feelings of being overwhelmed,some may feel panic others may feel excitement

Stage 2

minimizing the impact

Stage 2

the individual feels the need to go back to what was normal or comfortable/this stage compares to Bridges' components of disenchantment and disorientation

Stage 3

the pit

Stage 3

the individual experiences selfdoubt,may have feelings of depression and grief,anger,powerlessness. the individual must move from powerlessness to strenght,from anger and grief to optimism about the new

Stage 4

letting go of the past

Stage 4

A stage of forward vision,the past has been let go,focus on the change and the benefits to be obtained by the change

Stage 5

testing the limits

Stage 5

new identity is established and new behaviors and new skills are tried. New relationships develop with colleagues family and friends/compares to bridges' neutral zone phase

Stage 6

searching for meaning

Stage 6

a period of self-reflection and finding meaning in the experience new roles new relationships and new skills are being established. For nurses returning to school it may be helpful to share the story of their experience with the nurses who are thinking of returing.

Final stage

integration

Final stage

completion of the transition. the individual experiences satisfaction and self confidence

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